Summa Theologiae – First part of the Second Part

TREATISE ON THE LAST END (QQ[1-5])

  • Prologue

— Question. 1 – Of Man’s Last End (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it belongs to man to act for an end?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is proper to the rational nature to act for an end?
  • Article. 3 – Whether human acts are specified by their end?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there is one last end of human life?
  • Article. 5 – Whether one man can have several last ends?
  • Article. 6 – Whether man will all, whatsoever he wills, for the last end?
  • Article. 7 – Whether all men have the same last end?
  • Article. 8 – Whether other creatures concur in that last end?

— Question. 2 – Of Those Things In Which Man’s Happiness Consists (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether man’s happiness consists in wealth?
  • Article. 2 – Whether man’s happiness consists in honors?
  • Article. 3 – Whether man’s happiness consists in fame or glory?
  • Article. 4 – Whether man’s happiness consists in power?
  • Article. 5 – Whether man’s happiness consists in any bodily good?
  • Article. 6 – Whether man’s happiness consists in pleasure?
  • Article. 7 – Whether some good of the soul constitutes man’s happiness?
  • Article. 8 – Whether any created good constitutes man’s happiness?

— Question. 3 – What Is Happiness (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether happiness is something uncreated?
  • Article. 2 – Whether happiness is an operation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether happiness is an operation of the sensitive part, or of the intellective part only?
  • Article. 4 – Whether, if happiness is in the intellective part, it is an operation of the intellect or of the will?
  • Article. 5 – Whether happiness is an operation of the speculative, or of the practical intellect?
  • Article. 6 – Whether happiness consists in the consideration of speculative sciences?
  • Article. 7 – Whether happiness consists in the knowledge of separate substances, namely, angels?
  • Article. 8 – Whether man’s happiness consists in the vision of the divine essence?

— Question. 4 – Of Those Things That Are Required For Happiness (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether delight is required for happiness?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in happiness vision ranks before delight?
  • Article. 3 – Whether comprehension is necessary for happiness?
  • Article. 4 – Whether rectitude of the will is necessary for happiness?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the body is necessary for man’s happiness?
  • Article. 6 – Whether perfection of the body is necessary for happiness?
  • Article. 7 – Whether any external goods are necessary for happiness?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the fellowship of friend is necessary for happiness?

— Question. 5 – Of The Attainment Of Happiness (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether man can attain happiness?
  • Article. 2 – Whether one man can be happier than another?
  • Article. 3 – Whether one can be happy in this life?
  • Article. 4 – Whether happiness once had can be lost?
  • Article. 5 – Whether man can attain happiness by his natural powers?
  • Article. 6 – Whether man attains happiness through the action of some higher creature?
  • Article. 7 – Whether any good works are necessary that man may receive happiness from God?
  • Article. 8 – Whether every man desires happiness?

TREATISE ON HUMAN ACTS: ACTS PECULIAR TO MAN (QQ[6-21])

— Question. 6 – Of The Voluntary And The Involuntary (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is anything voluntary in human acts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there is anything voluntary in irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there can be voluntariness without any act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether violence can be done to the will?
  • Article. 5 – Whether violence causes involuntariness?
  • Article. 6 – Whether fear causes involuntariness simply?
  • Article. 7 – Whether concupiscence causes involuntariness?
  • Article. 8 – Whether ignorance causes involuntariness?

— Question. 7 – Of The Circumstances Of Human Acts (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a circumstance is an accident of a human act?
  • Article. 2 – Whether theologians should take note of the circumstances of human acts?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the circumstances are properly set forth in the third book of Ethics?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the most important circumstances are ‘why’ and ‘in what the act consists’?

— Question. 8 – Of The Will, In Regard To What It Wills (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will is of good only?
  • Article. 2 – Whether volition is of the end only, or also of the means?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the will is moved by the same act to the end and to the means?

— Question. 9 – Of That Which Moves The Will (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will is moved by the intellect?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the will is moved by the sensitive appetite?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the will moves itself?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the will is moved by an exterior principle?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the will is moved by a heavenly body?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the will is moved by God alone, as exterior principle?

— Question. 10 – Of The Manner In Which The Will Is Moved (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will is moved to anything naturally?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by its object?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by the lower appetite?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the will is moved of necessity by the exterior mover which is God?

— Question. 11 – Of Enjoyment [*Or, Fruition], Which Is An Act Of The Will (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether to enjoy is an act of the appetitive power?
  • Article. 2 – Whether to enjoy belongs to the rational creature alone, or also to irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether enjoyment is only of the last end?
  • Article. 4 – Whether enjoyment is only of the end possessed?

— Question. 12 – Of Intention (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether intention is an act of the intellect or of the will?
  • Article. 2 – Whether intention is only of the last end?
  • Article. 3 – Whether one can intend two things at the same time?
  • Article. 4 – Whether intention of the end is the same act as the volition of the means?
  • Article. 5 – Whether intention is within the competency of irrational animals?

— Question. 13 – Of Choice, Which Is An Act Of The Will With Regard To The Means (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether choice is an act of will or of reason?
  • Article. 2 – Whether choice is to be found in irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether choice is only of the means, or sometimes also of the end?
  • Article. 4 – Whether choice is of those things only that are done by u s ?
  • Article. 5 – Whether choice is only of possible things?
  • Article. 6 – Whether man chooses of necessity or freely?

— Question. 14 – Of Counsel, Which Precedes Choice (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether counsel is an inquiry?
  • Article. 2 – Whether counsel is of the end, or only of the means?
  • Article. 3 – Whether counsel is only of things that we do?
  • Article. 4 – Whether counsel is about all things that we do?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the process of counsel is one of analysis?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the process of counsel is indefinite?

— Question. 15 – Of Consent, Which Is An Act Of The Will In Regard To The Means (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether consent is an act of the appetitive or of the apprehensive power?
  • Article. 2 – Whether consent is to be found in irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether consent is directed to the end or to the means?
  • Article. 4 – Whether consent to the act belongs only to the higher part of the soul?

— Question. 16 – Of Use, Which Is An Act Of The Will In Regard To The Means (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether use is an act of the will?
  • Article. 2 – Whether use is to be found in irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether use regards also the last end?
  • Article. 4 – Whether use precedes choice?

— Question. 17 – Of The Acts Commanded By The Will (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether command is an act of the reason or of the will?
  • Article. 2 – Whether command belongs to irrational animals?
  • Article. 3 – Whether use precedes command?
  • Article. 4 – Whether command and the commanded act are one act, or distinct?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the act of the will is commanded?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the act of the reason is commanded?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the act of the sensitive appetite is commanded?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the act of the vegetal soul is commanded?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the acts of the external members are commanded?

— Question. 18 – Of The Good And Evil Of Human Acts, In General (Eleven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every human action is good, or are there evil actions?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the good or evil of a man’s action is derived from its object?
  • Article. 3 – Whether man’s action is good or evil from a circumstance?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a human action is good or evil from its end?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a human action is good or evil in its species?
  • Article. 6 – Whether an action has the species of good or evil from its end?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the species derived from the end is contained under the species derived from the object, as under its genus, or conversely?
  • Article. 8 – Whether any action is indifferent in its species?
  • Article. 9 – Whether an individual action can be indifferent?
  • Article. 10 – Whether a circumstance places a moral action in the species of good or evil?
  • Article. 11 – Whether every circumstance that makes an action better or worse, places a moral action in a species of good or evil?

— Question. 19 – Of The Goodness And Malice Of The Interior Act Of The Will (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object alone?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the goodness of the will depends on reason?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the goodness of the will depends on the eternal law?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the will is evil when it is at variance with erring reason?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the will is good when it abides by erring reason?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the goodness of the will, as regards the means, depends on the intention of the end?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the degree of goodness or malice in the will depends on the degree of good or evil in the intention?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the goodness of the will depends on its conformity to the Divine will?
  • Article. 10 – Whether it is necessary for the human will, in order to be good, to be conformed to the Divine will, as regards the thing willed?

— Question. 20 – Of Goodness And Malice In External Human Affairs (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether goodness or malice is first in the action of the will, or in the external action?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the whole goodness and malice of the external action depends on the goodness of the will?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the goodness and malice of the external action are the same as those of the interior act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the external action adds any goodness or malice to that of the interior act?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the consequences of the external action increase its goodness or malice?
  • Article. 6 – Whether one and the same external action can be both good and evil?

— Question. 21 – Of The Consequences Of Human Actions By Reason Of Their Goodness And Malice (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a human action is right or sinful, in so far as it is good or evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a human action deserves praise or blame, by reason of its being good or evil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious in so far as it is good or evil?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious before God, according as it is good or evil?

TREATISE ON THE PASSIONS (QQ[22-48])

— Question. 22 – Of The Subject Of The Soul’s Passions (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any passion is in the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether passion is in the appetitive rather than in the apprehensive part?
  • Article. 3 – Whether passion is in the sensitive appetite rather than in the intellectual appetite, which is called the will?

— Question. 23 – How The Passions Differ From One Another (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the passions of the concupiscible part are different from those of the irascible part?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the contrariety of the irascible passions is based on the contrariety of good and evil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any passion of the soul has no contrariety?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in the same power, there are any passions, specifically different, but not contrary to one another?

— Question. 24 – Of Good And Evil In The Passions Of The Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether moral good and evil can be found in the passions of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every passion of the soul is evil morally?
  • Article. 3 – Whether passion increases or decreases the goodness or malice of an act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether any passion is good or evil in its species?

— Question. 25 – Of The Order Of The Passions To One Another (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the irascible passions precede the concupiscible passions, or vice versa?
  • Article. 2 – Whether love is the first of the concupiscible passions?
  • Article. 3 – Whether hope is the first of the irascible passions?
  • Article. 4 – Whether these are the four principal passions: joy, sadness, hope and fear?

— Question. 26 – Of The Passions Of The Soul In Particular: And First, Of Love (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether love is in the concupiscible power?
  • Article. 2 – Whether love is a passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether love is the same as dilection?
  • Article. 4 – Whether love is properly divided into love of friendship and love of concupiscence?

— Question. 27 – Of The Cause Of Love (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether good is the only cause of love?
  • Article. 2 – Whether knowledge is a cause of love?
  • Article. 3 – Whether likeness is a cause of love?
  • Article. 4 – Whether any other passion of the soul is a cause of love?

— Question. 28 – Of The Effects Of Love (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether union is an effect of love?
  • Article. 2 – Whether mutual indwelling is an effect of love?
  • Article. 3 – Whether ecstasy is an effect of love?
  • Article. 4 – Whether zeal is an effect of love?
  • Article. 5 – Whether love is a passion that wounds the lover?
  • Article. 6 – Whether love is cause of all that the lover does?

— Question. 29 – Of Hatred (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether evil is the cause and object of hatred?
  • Article. 2 – Whether love is a cause of hatred?
  • Article. 3 – Whether hatred is stronger than love?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a man can hate himself?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a man can hate the truth?
  • Article. 6 – Whether anything can be an object of universal hatred?

— Question. 30 – Of Concupiscence (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether concupiscence is in the sensitive appetite only?
  • Article. 2 – Whether concupiscence is a specific passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether some concupiscences are natural, and some not natural?
  • Article. 4 – Whether concupiscence is infinite?

— Question. 31 – Of Delight Considered In Itself [*Or, Pleasure] (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether delight is a passion?
  • Article. 2 – Whether delight is in time?
  • Article. 3 – Whether delight differs from joy?
  • Article. 4 – Whether delight is in the intellectual appetite?
  • Article. 5 – Whether bodily and sensible pleasures are greater than spiritual and intellectual pleasures?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the pleasures of touch are greater than the pleasures afforded by the other senses?
  • Article. 7 – Whether any pleasure is not natural?
  • Article. 8 – Whether one pleasure can be contrary to another?

— Question. 32 – Of The Cause Of Pleasure (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether operation is the proper cause of pleasure?
  • Article. 2 – Whether movement is a cause of pleasure?
  • Article. 3 – Whether hope and memory causes pleasure?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sadness causes pleasure?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the actions of others are a cause of pleasure to u s ?
  • Article. 6 – Whether doing good to another is a cause of pleasure?
  • Article. 7 – Whether likeness is a cause of pleasure?
  • Article. 8 – Whether wonder is a cause of pleasure?

— Question. 33 – Of The Effects Of Pleasure (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether expansion is an effect of pleasure?
  • Article. 2 – Whether pleasure causes thirst or desire for itself?
  • Article. 3 – Whether pleasure hinders the use of reason?
  • Article. 4 – Whether pleasure perfects operation?

— Question. 34 – Of The Goodness And Malice Of Pleasures (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every pleasure is evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every pleasure is good?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any pleasure is the greatest good?
  • Article. 4 – Whether pleasure is the measure or rule by which to judge of moral good or evil?

— Question. 35 – Of Pain Or Sorrow, In Itself (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether pain is a passion of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sorrow is the same as pain?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sorrow or pain is contrary to pleasure?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all sorrow is contrary to all pleasure?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there is any sorrow contrary to the pleasure of contemplation?
  • Article. 6 – Whether sorrow is to be shunned more than pleasure is to be sought?
  • Article. 7 – Whether outward pain is greater than interior sorrow?
  • Article. 8 – Whether there are only four species of sorrow?

— Question. 36 – Of The Causes Of Sorrow Or Pain (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sorrow is caused by the loss of good or by the presence of evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether desire is a cause of sorrow?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the craving for unity is a cause of sorrow?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an irresistible power is a cause of sorrow?

— Question. 37 – Of The Effects Of Pain Or Sorrow (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether pain deprives one of the power to learn?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the effect of sorrow or pain is to burden the soul?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sorrow or pain weakens all activity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sorrow is more harmful to the body than the other passions of the soul?

— Question. 38 – Of The Remedies Of Sorrow Or Pain (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by every pleasure?
  • Article. 2 – Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by tears?
  • Article. 3 – Whether pain or sorrow are assuaged by the sympathy of friends?
  • Article. 4 – Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by the contemplation of truth?
  • Article. 5 – Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by sleep and baths?

— Question. 39 – Of The Goodness And Malice Of Sorrow Or Pain (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all sorrow is evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sorrow can be a virtuous good?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sorrow can be a useful good?
  • Article. 4 – Whether bodily pain is the greatest evil?

— Question. 40 – Of The Irascible Passions, And First, Of Hope And Despair (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether hope is the same as desire of cupidity?
  • Article. 2 – Whether hope is in the apprehensive or in the appetitive power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether hope is in dumb animals?
  • Article. 4 – Whether despair is contrary to hope?
  • Article. 5 – Whether experience is a cause of hope?
  • Article. 6 – Whether hope abounds in young men and drunkards?
  • Article. 7 – Whether hope is a cause of love?
  • Article. 8 – Whether hope is a help or a hindrance to action?

— Question. 41 – Of Fear, In Itself (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether fear is a passion of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether fear is a special passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is a natural fear?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the species of fear is suitably assigned?

— Question. 42 – Of The Object Of Fear (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the object of fear is good or evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether evil of nature is an object of fear?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the evil of sin is an object of fear?
  • Article. 4 – Whether fear itself can be feared?
  • Article. 5 – Whether sudden things are especially feared?
  • Article. 6 – Whether those things are more feared, for which there is no remedy?

— Question. 43 – Of The Cause Of Fear (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether love is the cause of fear?
  • Article. 2 – Whether defect is the cause of fear?

— Question. 44 – Of The Effects Of Fear (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether fear causes contraction?
  • Article. 2 – Whether fear makes one suitable for counsel?
  • Article. 3 – Whether fear makes one tremble?
  • Article. 4 – Whether fear hinders action?

— Question. 45 – Of Daring (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether daring is contrary to fear?
  • Article. 2 – Whether daring ensues from hope?
  • Article. 3 – Whether some defect is a cause of daring?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the brave are more eager at first than in the midst of danger?

— Question. 46 – Of Anger, In Itself (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether anger is a special passion?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the object of anger is good or evil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether anger is in the concupiscible faculty?
  • Article. 4 – Whether anger requires an act of reason?
  • Article. 5 – Whether anger is more natural than desire?
  • Article. 6 – Whether anger is more grievous than hatred?
  • Article. 7 – Whether anger is only towards those to whom one has an obligation of justice?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the species of anger are suitably assigned?

— Question. 47 – Of The Cause That Provokes Anger, And Of The Remedies Of Anger (Four Articles) [*There is no further mention of these remedies in the text, except in A[4].]

  • Article. 1 – Whether the motive of anger is always something done against the one who is angry?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sole motive of anger is slight or contempt?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man’s excellence is the cause of his being angry?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a person’s defect is a reason for being more easily angry with him?

— Question. 48 – Of The Effects Of Anger (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether anger causes pleasure?
  • Article. 2 – Whether anger above all causes fervor in the heart?
  • Article. 3 – Whether anger above all hinders the use of reason?
  • Article. 4 – Whether anger above all causes taciturnity?

TREATISE ON HABITS (QQ[49-54])

— Question. 49 – Of Habits In General, As To Their Substance (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether habit is a quality?
  • Article. 2 – Whether habit is a distinct species of quality?
  • Article. 3 – Whether habit implies order to an act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether habits are necessary?

— Question. 50 – Of The Subject Of Habits (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is a habit in the body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the soul is the subject of habit in respect of its essence or in respect of its power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there can be any habits in the powers of the sensitive parts?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there is any habit in the intellect?
  • Article. 5 – Whether any habit is in the will?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there are habits in the angels?

— Question. 51 – Of The Cause Of Habits, As To Their Formation (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any habit is from nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether any habit is caused by acts?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a habit can be caused by one act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether any habits are infused in man by God?

— Question. 52 – Of The Increase Of Habits (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether habits increase?
  • Article. 2 – Whether habits increases by addition?
  • Article. 3 – Whether every act increases its habit?

— Question. 53 – How Habits Are Corrupted Or Diminished (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a habit can be corrupted?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a habit can diminish?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a habit is corrupted or diminished through mere cessation from act?

— Question. 54 – Of The Distinction Of Habits (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether many habits can be in one power?
  • Article. 2 – Whether habits are distinguished by their objects?
  • Article. 3 – Whether habits are divided into good and bad?
  • Article. 4 – Whether one habit is made up of many habits?

TREATISE ON HABITS IN PARTICULAR (QQ[55-89]) GOOD HABITS, I.E. VIRTUES (QQ[55-70])

— Question. 55 – Of The Virtues, As To Their Essence (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether human virtue is a habit?
  • Article. 2 – Whether human virtue is an operative habit?
  • Article. 3 – Whether human virtue is a good habit?
  • Article. 4 – Whether virtue is suitably defined?

— Question. 56 – Of The Subject Of Virtue (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the subject of virtue is a power of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether one virtue can be in several powers?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the intellect can be the subject of virtue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the irascible and concupiscible powers are the subject of virtue?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the sensitive powers of apprehension are the subject of virtue?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the will can be the subject of virtue?

— Question. 57 – Of The Intellectual Virtues (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the habits of the speculative intellect are virtues?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are only three habits of the speculative intellect, viz. wisdom, science and understanding?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the intellectual habit, art, is a virtue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether prudence is a distinct virtue from art?
  • Article. 5 – Whether prudence is a virtue necessary to man?
  • Article. 6 – Whether ‘eubulia, synesis, and gnome’ are virtues annexed to prudence? [*{euboulia, synesis, gnome}]

— Question. 58 – Of The Difference Between Moral And Intellectual Virtues (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every virtue is a moral virtue?
  • Article. 2 – Whether moral virtue differs from intellectual virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether virtue is adequately divided into moral and intellectual?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there can be moral without intellectual virtue?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there can be intellectual without moral virtue?

— Question. 59 – Of Moral Virtue In Relation To The Passions (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether moral virtue is a passion?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there can be moral virtue with passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sorrow is compatible with moral virtue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all the moral virtues are about the passions?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there can be moral virtue without passion?

— Question. 60 – How The Moral Virtues Differ From One Another (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is only one moral virtue?
  • Article. 2 – Whether moral virtues about operations are different from those that are about passions?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is only one moral virtue about operations?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there are different moral virtues about different passions?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the moral virtues differ in point of the various objects of the passions?

— Question. 61 – Of The Cardinal Virtues (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the moral virtues should be called cardinal or principal virtues?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are four cardinal virtues?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any other virtues should be called principal rather than these?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the four cardinal virtues differ from one another?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the cardinal virtues are fittingly divided into social virtues, perfecting, perfect, and exemplar virtues?

— Question. 62 – Of The Theological Virtues (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are any theological virtues?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual and moral virtues?
  • Article. 3 – Whether faith, hope, and charity are fittingly reckoned as theological virtues?
  • Article. 4 – Whether faith precedes hope, and hope charity?

— Question. 63 – Of The Cause Of Virtues (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether virtue is in us by nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether any virtue is caused in us by habituation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any moral virtues are in us by infusion?
  • Article. 4 – Whether virtue by habituation belongs to the same species as infused virtue?

— Question. 64 – Of The Mean Of Virtue (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether moral virtues observe the mean?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the mean of moral virtue is the real mean, or the rational mean?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the intellectual virtues observe the mean?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the theological virtues observe the mean?

— Question. 65 – Of The Connection Of Virtues (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the moral virtues are connected with one another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether moral virtues can be without charity?
  • Article. 3 – Whether charity can be without moral virtue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether faith and hope can be without charity?
  • Article. 5 – Whether charity can be without faith and hope?

— Question. 66 – Of Equality Among The Virtues (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether one virtue can be greater or less than another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all the virtues that are together in one man, are equal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the moral virtues are better than the intellectual virtues?
  • Article. 4 – Whether justice is the chief of the moral virtues?
  • Article. 5 – Whether wisdom is the greatest of the intellectual virtues?
  • Article. 6 – Whether charity is the greatest of the theological virtues?

— Question. 67 – Of The Duration Of Virtues After This Life (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the moral virtues remain after this life?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the intellectual virtues remain after this life?
  • Article. 3 – Whether faith remains after this life?
  • Article. 4 – Whether hope remains after death, in the state of glory?
  • Article. 5 – Whether anything of faith or hope remains in glory?
  • Article. 6 – Whether charity remains after this life, in glory?

— Question. 68 – Of The Gifts (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Gifts differ from the virtues?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the gifts are necessary to man for salvation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are habits?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are suitably enumerated?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are connected?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost remain in heaven?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the gifts are set down by Isaias in their order of dignity?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the virtues are more excellent than the gifts?

— Question. 69 – Of The Beatitudes (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the beatitudes differ from the virtues and gifts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the rewards assigned to the beatitudes refer to this life?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the rewards of the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?

— Question. 70 – Of The Fruits Of The Holy Ghost (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost which the Apostle enumerates (Gal. 5) are acts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the fruits differ from the beatitudes?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the fruits are suitably enumerated by the Apostle?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost are contrary to the works of the flesh?

— Question. 71 – EVIL HABITS, I.E. VICES AND SINS (QQ[71-89])

  • Article. 1 – Whether vice is contrary to virtue?
  • Article. 2 – Whether vice is contrary to nature?
  • Article. 3 – Whether vice is worse than a vicious act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sin is compatible with virtue?
  • Article. 5 – Whether every sin includes an action?
  • Article. 6 – Whether sin is fittingly defined as a word, deed, or desire contrary to the eternal law?

— Question. 72 – Of The Distinction Of Sins (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sins differ in species according to their objects?
  • Article. 2 – Whether spiritual sins are fittingly distinguished from carnal sins?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sins differ specifically in reference to their causes?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sin is fittingly divided into sin against God, against oneself, and against one’s neighbor?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the division of sins according to their debt of punishment diversifies their species?
  • Article. 6 – Whether sins of commission and omission differ specifically?
  • Article. 7 – Whether sins are fittingly divided into sins of thought, word, and deed?
  • Article. 8 – Whether excess and deficiency diversify the species of sins?
  • Article. 9 – Whether sins differ specifically in respect of different circumstances?

— Question. 73 – Of The Comparison Of One Sin With Another (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all sins are connected with one another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all sins are equal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the gravity of sins varies according to their objects?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the gravity of sins depends on the excellence of the virtues to which they are opposed?
  • Article. 5 – Whether carnal sins are of less guilt than spiritual sins?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the gravity of a sin depends on its cause?
  • Article. 7 – Whether a circumstance aggravates a sin?
  • Article. 8 – Whether sin is aggravated by reason of its causing more harm?
  • Article. 9 – Whether a sin is aggravated by reason of the condition of the person against whom it is committed?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the excellence of the person sinning aggravates the sin?

— Question. 74 – Of The Subject Of Sin (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will is a subject of sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the will alone is the subject of sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there can be sin in the sensuality?
  • Article. 4 – Whether mortal sin can be in the sensuality?
  • Article. 5 – Whether sin can be in the reason?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the sin of morose delectation is in the reason?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the sin of consent to the act is in the higher reason?
  • Article. 8 – Whether consent to delectation is a mortal sin?
  • Article. 9 – Whether there can be venial sin in the higher reason as directing the lower powers?
  • Article. 10 – Whether venial sin can be in the higher reason as such?

— Question. 75 – Of The Causes Of Sin, In General (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sin has a cause?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sin has an internal cause?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sin has an external cause?
  • Article. 4 – Whether one sin is a cause of another?

— Question. 76 – Of The Causes Of Sin, In Particular (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether ignorance can be a cause of sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether ignorance is a sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether ignorance excuses from sin altogether?
  • Article. 4 – Whether ignorance diminishes a sin?

— Question. 77 – Of The Cause Of Sin, On The Part Of The Sensitive Appetite (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will is moved by a passion of the senstive appetite?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the reason can be overcome by a passion, against its knowledge?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a sin committed through passion, should be called a sin of weakness?
  • Article. 4 – Whether self-love is the source of every sin?
  • Article. 5 – Whether concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life are fittingly described as causes of sin?
  • Article. 6 – Whether sin is alleviated on account of a passion?
  • Article. 7 – Whether passion excuses from sin altogether?
  • Article. 8 – Whether a sin committed through passion can be mortal?

— Question. 78 – Of That Cause Of Sin Which Is Malice (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether anyone sins through certain malice?
  • Article. 2 – Whether everyone that sins through habit, sins through certain malice?
  • Article. 3 – Whether one who sins through certain malice, sins through habit?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is more grievous to sin through certain malice than through passion?

— Question. 79 – Of The External Causes Of Sin (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is a cause of sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the act of sin is from God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is the cause of spiritual blindness and hardness of heart?
  • Article. 4 – Whether blindness and hardness of heart are directed to the salvation of those who are blinded and hardened?

— Question. 80 – Of The Cause Of Sin, As Regards The Devil (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the devil is directly the cause of man’s sinning?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the devil can induce man to sin, by internal instigations?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the devil can induce man to sin of necessity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all the sins of men are due to the devil’s suggestion?

— Question. 81 – Of The Cause Of Sin, On The Part Of Man (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the first sin of our first parent is contracted by his descendants, by way of origin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether also other sins of the first parent or of nearer ancestors are transmitted to their descendants?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the sin of the first parent is transmitted, by the way of origin, to all men?
  • Article. 4 – Whether original sin would be contracted by a person formed miraculously from human flesh?
  • Article. 5 – Whether if Eve, and not Adam, had sinned, their children would have contracted original sin?

— Question. 82 – Of Original Sin, As To Its Essence (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether original sin is a habit?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are several original sins in one man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether original sin is concupiscence?
  • Article. 4 – Whether original sin is equally in all?

— Question. 83 – Of The Subject Of Original Sin (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether original sin is more in the flesh than in the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether original sin is in the essence of the soul rather than in the powers?
  • Article. 3 – Whether original sin infects the will before the other powers?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the aforesaid powers are more infected than the others?

— Question. 84 – Of The Cause Of Sin, In Respect Of One Sin Being The Cause Of Another (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether covetousness is the root of all sins?
  • Article. 2 – Whether pride is the beginning of every sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any other special sins, besides pride and avarice, should be called capital?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the seven capital vices are suitably reckoned?

— Question. 85 – Of The Effects Of Sin, And, First, Of The Corruption Of The Good Of Nature (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sin diminishes the good of nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the entire good of human nature can be destroyed by sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether weakness, ignorance, malice and concupiscence are suitably reckoned as the wounds of nature consequent upon sin?
  • Article. 4 – Whether privation of mode, species and order is the effect of sin?
  • Article. 5 – Whether death and other bodily defects are the result of sin?
  • Article. 6 – Whether death and other defects are natural to man?

— Question. 86 – Of The Stain Of Sin (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sin causes a stain on the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the stain remains in the soul after the act of sin?

— Question. 87 – Of The Debt Of Punishment (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the debt of punishment is an effect of sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sin can be the punishment of sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sin incurs a debt of punishment infinite in quantity?
  • Article. 5 – Whether every sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the debt of punishment remains after sin?
  • Article. 7 – Whether every punishment is inflicted for a sin?
  • Article. 8 – Whether anyone is punished for another’s sin?

— Question. 88 – Of Venial And Mortal Sin (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether venial sin is fittingly condivided with mortal sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether mortal and venial sin differ generically?
  • Article. 3 – Whether venial sin is a disposition to mortal sin?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a venial sin can become mortal?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a circumstance can make a venial sin to be mortal?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a mortal sin can become venial?

— Question. 89 – Of Venial Sin In Itself (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether venial sin causes a stain on the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether venial sins are suitably designated as ‘wood, hay, and stubble’?
  • Article. 3 – Whether man could commit a venial sin in the state of innocence?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a good or a wicked angel can sin venially?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the first movements of the sensuality in unbelievers are mortal sin?
  • Article. 6 – Whether venial sin can be in anyone with original sin alone?

TREATISE ON LAW (QQ 90-108)

— Question. 90 – Of The Essence Of Law (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether law is something pertaining to reason?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the law is always something directed to the common good?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the reason of any man is competent to make laws?
  • Article. 4 – Whether promulgation is essential to a law?

— Question. 91 – Of The Various Kinds Of Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is an eternal law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there is in us a natural law?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is a human law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there was any need for a Divine law?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there is but one Divine law?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there is a law in the fomes of sin?

— Question. 92 – Of The Effects Of Law (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an effect of law is to make men good?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the acts of law are suitably assigned?

— Question. 93 – Of The Eternal Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the eternal law is a sovereign type [*Ratio] existing in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the eternal law is known to all?
  • Article. 3 – Whether every law is derived from the eternal law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether necessary and eternal things are subject to the eternal law?
  • Article. 5 – Whether natural contingents are subject to the eternal law?
  • Article. 6 – Whether all human affairs are subject to the eternal law?

— Question. 94 – Of The Natural Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the natural law is a habit?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the natural law contains several precepts, or only one?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all acts of virtue are prescribed by the natural law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the natural law is the same in all men?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the natural law can be changed?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the law of nature can be abolished from the heart of man?

— Question. 95 – Of Human Law (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was useful for laws to be framed by men?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every human law is derived from the natural law?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Isidore’s description of the quality of positive law is appropriate?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Isidore’s division of human laws is appropriate?

— Question. 96 – Of The Power Of Human Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether human law should be framed for the community rather than for the individual?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it belongs to the human law to repress all vices?
  • Article. 3 – Whether human law prescribes acts of all the virtues?
  • Article. 4 – Whether human law binds a man in conscience?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all are subject to the law?
  • Article. 6 – Whether he who is under a law may act beside the letter of the law?

— Question. 97 – Of Change In Laws (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether human law should be changed in any way?
  • Article. 2 – Whether human law should always be changed, whenever something better occurs?
  • Article. 3 – Whether custom can obtain force of law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the rulers of the people can dispense from human laws?

— Question. 98 – Of The Old Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Old Law was good?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Old Law was from God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Old Law was given through the angels?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Old Law should have been given to the Jews alone?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all men were bound to observe the Old Law?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the Old Law was suitably given at the time of Moses?

— Question. 99 – Of The Precepts Of The Old Law (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Old Law contains only one precept?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Old Law contains moral precepts?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Old Law comprises ceremonial, besides moral, precepts?
  • Article. 4 – Whether, besides the moral and ceremonial precepts, there are also judicial precepts?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the Old Law contains any others besides the moral, judicial, and ceremonial precepts?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the Old Law should have induced men to the observance of its precepts, by means of temporal promises and threats?

— Question. 100 – Of The Moral Precepts Of The Old Law (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law belong to the law of nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the moral precepts of the Law are about all the acts of virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law are reducible to the ten precepts of the decalogue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably distinguished from one another?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably set forth?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the ten precepts of the decalogue are set in proper order?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably formulated?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the precepts of the decalogue are dispensable?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the mode of virtue falls under the precept of the law?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the mode of charity falls under the precept of the Divine law?
  • Article. 11 – Whether it is right to distinguish other moral precepts of the law besides the decalogue?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the moral precepts of the Old Law justified man?

— Question. 101 – Of The Ceremonial Precepts In Themselves (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the nature of the ceremonial precepts consists in their pertaining to the worship of God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the ceremonial precepts are figurative?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there should have been man ceremonial precepts?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the ceremonies of the Old Law are suitably divided into sacrifices, sacred things, sacraments, and observances?

— Question. 102 – Of The Causes Of The Ceremonial Precepts (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there was any cause for the ceremonial precepts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the ceremonial precepts have a literal cause or merely a figurative cause?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a suitable cause can be assigned for the ceremonies which pertained to sacrifices?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sufficient reason can be assigned for the ceremonies pertaining to holy things?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there can be any suitable cause for the sacraments of the Old Law?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there was any reasonable cause for the ceremonial observances?

— Question. 103 – Of The Duration Of The Ceremonial Precepts (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the ceremonies of the Law were in existence before the Law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether, at the time of the Law, the ceremonies of the Old Law had any power of justification?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the ceremonies of the Old Law ceased at the coming of Christ?
  • Article. 4 – Whether since Christ’s Passion the legal ceremonies can be observed without committing mortal sin?

— Question. 104 – Of The Judicial Precepts (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the judicial precepts were those which directed man in relation to his neighbor?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the judicial precepts were figurative?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the judicial precepts of the Old Law bind for ever?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is possible to assign a distinct division of the judicial precepts?

— Question. 105 – Of The Reason For The Judicial Precepts (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Old Law enjoined fitting precepts concerning rulers?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the judicial precepts were suitably framed as to the relations of one man with another?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the judicial precepts regarding foreigners were framed in a suitable manner?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Old Law set forth suitable precepts about the members of the household?

— Question. 106 – Of The Law Of The Gospel, Called The New Law, Considered In Itself (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the New Law is a written law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the New Law justifies?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the New Law should have been given from the beginning of the world?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the New Law will last till the end of the world?

— Question. 107 – Of The New Law As Compared With The Old (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the New Law is distinct from the Old Law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the New Law fulfils the Old?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the New Law is contained in the Old?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the New Law is more burdensome than the Old?

— Question. 108 – Of Those Things That Are Contained In The New Law (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the New Law ought to prescribe or prohibit any external acts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the New Law made sufficient ordinations about external acts?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the New Law directed man sufficiently as regards interior actions?
  • Article. 4 – Whether certain definite counsels are fittingly proposed in the New Law?

TREATISE ON GRACE (QQ[109-114])

— Question. 109 – Of The Necessity Of Grace (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether without grace man can know any truth?
  • Article. 2 – Whether man can wish or do any good without grace?
  • Article. 3 – Whether by his own natural powers and without grace man can love God above all things?
  • Article. 4 – Whether man without grace and by his own natural powers can fulfil the commandments of the Law?
  • Article. 5 – Whether man can merit everlasting life without grace?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a man, by himself and without the external aid of grace, can prepare himself for grace?
  • Article. 7 – Whether man can rise from sin without the help of grace?
  • Article. 8 – Whether man without grace can avoid sin?
  • Article. 9 – Whether one who has already obtained grace, can, of himself and without further help of grace, do good and avoid sin?
  • Article. 10 – Whether man possessed of grace needs the help of grace in order to persevere?

— Question. 110 – Of The Grace Of God As Regards Its Essence (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether grace implies anything in the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether grace is a quality of the soul?
  • Article. 3 – Whether grace is the same as virtue?
  • Article. 4 – Whether grace is in the essence of the soul as in a subject, or in one of the powers?

— Question. 111 – Of The Division Of Grace (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether grace is fittingly divided into sanctifying grace and gratuitous grace?
  • Article. 2 – Whether grace is fittingly divided into operating and cooperating grace?
  • Article. 3 – Whether grace is fittingly divided into prevenient and subsequent grace?
  • Article. 4 – Whether gratuitous grace is rightly divided by the Apostle?
  • Article. 5 – Whether gratuitous grace is nobler than sanctifying grace?

— Question. 112 – Of The Cause Of Grace (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God alone is the cause of grace?
  • Article. 2 – Whether any preparation and disposition for grace is required on man’s part?
  • Article. 3 – Whether grace is necessarily given to whoever prepares himself for it, or to whoever does what he can?
  • Article. 4 – Whether grace is greater in one than in another?
  • Article. 5 – Whether man can know that he has grace?

— Question. 113 – Of The Effects Of Grace (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the justification of the ungodly is the remission of sins?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the infusion of grace is required for the remission of guilt, i.e. for the justification of the ungodly?
  • Article. 3 – Whether for the justification of the ungodly is required a movement of the free-will?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a movement of faith is required for the justification of the ungodly?
  • Article. 5 – Whether for the justification of the ungodly there is required a movement of the free-will towards sin?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the remission of sins ought to be reckoned amongst the things required for justification?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the justification of the ungodly takes place in an instant or successively?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the infusion of grace is naturally the first of the things required for the justification of the ungodly?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the justification of the ungodly is God’s greatest work?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the justification of the ungodly is a miraculous work?

— Question. 114 – Of Merit (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a man may merit anything from God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether anyone without grace can merit eternal life?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man in grace can merit eternal life condignly?
  • Article. 4 – Whether grace is the principle of merit through charity rather than the other virtues?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a man may merit for himself the first grace?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a man can merit the first grace for another?
  • Article. 7 – Whether a man may merit restoration after a fall?
  • Article. 8 – Whether a man may merit the increase of grace or charity?
  • Article. 9 – Whether a man may merit perseverance?
  • Article. 10 – Whether temporal goods fall under merit?