Summa Theologiae – First Part

TREATISE ON SACRED DOCTRINE (Q[1])

— Question. 1 – The Nature And Extent Of Sacred Doctrine (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether, besides philosophy, any further doctrine is required?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sacred doctrine is a science?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sacred doctrine is one science?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sacred doctrine is a practical science?
  • Article. 5 – Whether sacred doctrine is nobler than other sciences?
  • Article. 6 – Whether this doctrine is the same as wisdom?
  • Article. 7 – Whether God is the object of this science?
  • Article. 8 – Whether sacred doctrine is a matter of argument?
  • Article. 9 – Whether Holy Scripture should use metaphors?
  • Article. 10 – Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses?

TREATISE ON THE ONE GOD (QQ[2-26])

— Question. 2 – The Existence Of God (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the existence of God is self-evident?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it can be demonstrated that God exists?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God exists?

— Question. 3 – Of the Simplicity Of God (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is a body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God is composed of matter and form?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is the same as His essence or nature?
  • Article. 4 – Whether essence and existence are the same in God?
  • Article. 5 – Whether God is contained in a genus?
  • Article. 6 – Whether in God there are any accidents?
  • Article. 7 – Whether God is altogether simple?
  • Article. 8 – Whether God enters into the composition of other things?

— Question. 4 – The Perfection Of God (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is perfect?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the perfections of all things are in God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any creature can be like God?

— Question. 5 – Of Goodness In General (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether goodness differs really from being?
  • Article. 2 – Whether goodness is prior in idea to being?
  • Article. 3 – Whether every being is good?
  • Article. 4 – Whether goodness has the aspect of a final cause?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the essence of goodness consists in mode, species and order?
  • Article. 6 – Whether goodness is rightly divided into the virtuous*, the useful and the pleasant? [*“Bonum honestum” is the virtuous good considered as fitting. (cf. SS, Q[141], A[3]; SS, Q[145])]

— Question. 6 – The Goodness Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is good?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God is the supreme good?
  • Article. 3 – Whether to be essentially good belongs to God alone?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all things are good by the divine goodness?

— Question. 7 – The Infinity Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is infinite?
  • Article. 2 – Whether anything but God can be essentially infinite?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an actually infinite magnitude can exist?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an infinite multitude can exist?

— Question. 8 – The Existence Of God In Things (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is in all things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God is everywhere?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is everywhere by essence, presence and power?
  • Article. 4 – Whether to be everywhere belongs to God alone?

— Question. 9 – The Immutability Of God (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God is altogether immutable?
  • Article. 2 – Whether to be immutable belongs to God alone?

— Question. 10 – The Eternity Of God (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this is a good definition of eternity, “The simultaneously-whole and perfect possession of interminable life”?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God is eternal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether to be eternal belongs to God alone?
  • Article. 4 – Whether eternity differs from time?
  • Article. 5 – The difference of aeviternity and time
  • Article. 6 – Whether there is only one aeviternity?

— Question. 11 – The Unity Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether “one” adds anything to “being”?
  • Article. 2 – Whether “one” and “many” are opposed to each other?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is one?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God is supremely one?

— Question. 12 – How God Is Known By Us (Thirteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any created intellect can see the essence of God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the essence of God is seen by the created intellect through an image?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the essence of God can be seen with the bodily eye?
  • Article. 4 – Whether any created intellect by its natural powers can see the Divine essence?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the created intellect needs any created light in order to see the essence of God?
  • Article. 6 – Whether of those who see the essence of God, one sees more perfectly than another?
  • Article. 7 – Whether those who see the essence of God comprehend Him?
  • Article. 8 – Whether those who see the essence of God see all in God?
  • Article. 9 – Whether what is seen in God by those who see the Divine essence, is seen through any similitude?
  • Article. 10 – Whether those who see the essence of God see all they see in it at the same time?
  • Article. 11 – Whether anyone in this life can see the essence of God?
  • Article. 12 – Whether God can be known in this life by natural reason?
  • Article. 13 – Whether by grace a higher knowledge of God can be obtained than by natural reason?

— Question. 13 – The Names Of God (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a name can be given to God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether any name can be applied to God substantially?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any name can be applied to God in its literal sense?
  • Article. 4 – Whether names applied to God are synonymous?
  • Article. 5 – Whether what is said of God and of creatures is univocally predicated of them?
  • Article. 6 – Whether names predicated of God are predicated primarily of creatures?
  • Article. 7 – Whether names which imply relation to creatures are predicated of God temporally?
  • Article. 8 – Whether this name “God” is a name of the nature?
  • Article. 9 – Whether this name “God” is communicable?
  • Article. 10 – Whether this name “God” is applied to God univocally by nature, by participation, and according to opinion?
  • Article. 11 – Whether this name, HE WHO IS, is the most proper name of God?
  • Article. 12 – Whether affirmative propositions can be formed about God?

— Question. 14 – Of God’s Knowledge (Sixteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is knowledge [*Scientia]?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God understands Himself?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God comprehends Himself?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the act of God’s intellect is His substance?
  • Article. 5 – Whether God knows things other than Himself?
  • Article. 6 – Whether God knows things other than Himself by proper knowledge?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the knowledge of God is discursive?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the knowledge of God is the cause of things?
  • Article. 9 – Whether God has knowledge of things that are not?
  • Article. 10 – Whether God knows evil things?
  • Article. 11 – Whether God knows singular things?
  • Article. 12 – Whether God can know infinite things?
  • Article. 13 – Whether the knowledge of God is of future contingent things?
  • Article. 14 – Whether God knows enunciable things?
  • Article. 15 – Whether the knowledge of God is variable?
  • Article. 16 – Whether God has a speculative knowledge of things?

— Question. 15 – Of Ideas (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are ideas?
  • Article. 2 – Whether ideas are many?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there are ideas of all things that God knows?

— Question. 16 – Of Truth (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether truth resides only in the intellect?
  • Article. 2 – Whether truth resides only in the intellect composing and dividing?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the true and being are convertible terms?
  • Article. 4 – Whether good is logically prior to the true?
  • Article. 5 – Whether God is truth?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there is only one truth, according to which all things are true?
  • Article. 7 – Whether created truth is eternal?
  • Article. 8 – Whether truth is immutable?

— Question. 17 – Concerning Falsity (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether falsity exists in things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there is falsity in the senses?
  • Article. 3 – Whether falsity is in the intellect?
  • Article. 4 – Whether true and false are contraries?

— Question. 18 – The Life Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether to live belongs to all natural things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether life is an operation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether life is properly attributed to God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all things are life in God?

— Question. 19 – The Will Of God (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is will in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God wills things apart from Himself?
  • Article. 3 – Whether whatever God wills He wills necessarily?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the will of God is the cause of things?
  • Article. 5 – Whether any cause can be assigned to the divine will?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the will of God is always fulfilled?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the will of God is changeable?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the will of God imposes necessity on the things willed?
  • Article. 9 – Whether God wills evils?
  • Article. 10 – Whether God has free-will?
  • Article. 11 – Whether the will of expression is to be distinguished in God?
  • Article. 12 – Whether five expressions of will are rightly assigned to the divine will?

— Question. 20 – God’s Love (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether love exists in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God loves all things?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God loves all things equally?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God always loves more the better things?

— Question. 21 – The Justice And Mercy Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is justice in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the justice of God is truth?
  • Article. 3 – Whether mercy can be attributed to God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in every work of God there are mercy and justice?

— Question. 22 – The Providence Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether providence can suitably be attributed to God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether everything is subject to the providence of God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God has immediate providence over everything?
  • Article. 4 – Whether providence imposes any necessity on things foreseen?

— Question. 23 – Of Predestination (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether men are predestined by God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether predestination places anything in the predestined?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God reprobates any man?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the predestined are chosen by God? [*“Eligantur.”]
  • Article. 5 – Whether the foreknowledge of merits is the cause of predestination?
  • Article. 6 – Whether predestination is certain?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the number of the predestined is certain?
  • Article. 8 – Whether predestination can be furthered by the prayers of the saints?

— Question. 24 – The Book Of Life (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the book of life is the same as predestination?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the book of life regards only the life of glory of the predestined?
  • Article. 3 – Whether anyone may be blotted out of the book of life?

— Question. 25 – The Power Of God (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is power in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the power of God is infinite?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is omnipotent?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God can make the past not to have been?
  • Article. 5 – Whether God can do what He does not?
  • Article. 6 – Whether God can do better than what He does?

— Question. 26 – Of The Divine Beatitude (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether beatitude belongs to God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God is called blessed in respect of His intellect?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is the beatitude of each of the blessed?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all other beatitude is included in the beatitude of God?

TREATISE ON THE MOST HOLY TRINITY (QQ[27-43])

— Question. 27 – The Procession Of The Divine Persons (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is procession in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether any procession in God can be called generation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether any other procession exists in God besides that of the Word?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the procession of love in God is generation?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there are more than two processions in God?

— Question. 28 – The Divine Relations (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are real relations in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether relation in God is the same as His essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the relations in God are really distinguished from each other?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in God there are only four real relations — paternity, filiation, spiration, and procession?

— Question. 29 – The Divine Persons (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – The definition of “person”
  • Article. 2 – Whether “person” is the same as hypostasis, subsistence, and essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the word “person” should be said of God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether this word “person” signifies relation?

— Question. 30 – The Plurality Of Persons In God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are several persons in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are more than three persons in God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the numeral terms denote anything real in God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether this term “person” can be common to the three persons?

— Question. 31 – Of What Belongs To The Unity Or Plurality In God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is trinity in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Son is other than the Father?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the exclusive word “alone” should be added to the essential term in God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an exclusive diction can be joined to the personal term?

— Question. 32 – The Knowledge Of The Divine Persons (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the trinity of the divine persons can be known by natural reason?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are notions in God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there are five notions?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is lawful to have various contrary opinions of notions?

— Question. 33 – Of The Person Of The Father (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it belongs to the Father to be the principle?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this name “Father” is properly the name of a divine person?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this name “Father” is applied to God, firstly as a personal name?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is proper to the Father to be unbegotten?

— Question. 34 – Of The Person Of The Son (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Word in God is a personal name?
  • Article. 2 – Whether “Word” is the Son’s proper name?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the name “Word” imports relation to creatures?

— Question. 35 – Of The Image (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether image in God is said personally?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the name of Image is proper to the Son?

— Question. 36 – Of The Person Of The Holy Ghost (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this name “Holy Ghost” is the proper name of one divine person?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father through the Son?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Father and the Son are one principle of the Holy Ghost?

— Question. 37 – Of The Name Of The Holy Ghost — Love (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether “Love” is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Father and the Son love each other by the Holy Ghost?

— Question. 38 – Of The Name Of The Holy Ghost, As Gift (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether ‘Gift’ is a personal name?
  • Article. 2 – Whether ‘Gift’ is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?

— Question. 39 – Of The Persons In Relation To The Essence (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in God the essence is the same as the person?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it must be said that the three persons are of one essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether essential names should be predicated in the singular of the three persons?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the concrete essential names can stand for the person?
  • Article. 5 – Whether abstract essential names can stand for the person?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the persons can be predicated of the essential terms?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the essential names should be appropriated to the persons?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the essential attributes are appropriated to the persons in a fitting manner by the holy doctors?

— Question. 40 – Of The Persons As Compared To The Relations Or Properties (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether relation is the same as person?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the persons are distinguished by the relations?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the hypostases remain if the relations are mentally abstracted from the persons?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the properties presuppose the notional acts?

— Question. 41 – Of The Persons In Reference To The Notional Acts (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the notional acts are to be attributed to the persons?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the notional acts are voluntary?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the notional acts proceed from something?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in God there is a power in respect of the notional acts?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the power of begetting signifies a relation, and not the essence?
  • Article. 6 – Whether several persons can be the term of one notional act?

— Question. 42 – Of Equality And Likeness Among The Divine Persons (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is equality in God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the person proceeding is co-eternal with His principle, as the Son with the Father?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in the divine persons there exists an order of nature?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Son is equal to the Father in greatness?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the Son is in the Father, and conversely?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the Son is equal to the Father in power?

— Question. 43 – The Mission Of The Divine Persons (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a divine person can be properly sent?
  • Article. 2 – Whether mission is eternal, or only temporal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the invisible mission of the divine person is only according to the gift of sanctifying grace?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Father can be fittingly sent?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it is fitting for the Son to be sent invisibly?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the invisible mission is to all who participate grace?
  • Article. 7 – Whether it is fitting for the Holy Ghost to be sent visibly?
  • Article. 8 – Whether a divine person is sent only by the person whence He proceeds eternally?

TREATISE ON THE CREATION (QQ[44-46])

— Question. 44 – The Procession Of Creatures From God, And Of The First Cause Of All Things (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is necessary that every being be created by God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether primary matter is created by God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the exemplar cause is anything besides God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God is the final cause of all things?

— Question. 45 – The Mode Of Emanation Of Things From The First Principle (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether to create is to make something from nothing?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God can create anything?
  • Article. 3 – Whether creation is anything in the creature?
  • Article. 4 – Whether to be created belongs to composite and subsisting things?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it belongs to God alone to create?
  • Article. 6 – Whether to create is proper to any person?
  • Article. 7 – Whether in creatures is necessarily found a trace of the Trinity?
  • Article. 8 – Whether creation is mingled with works of nature and art?

— Question. 46 – Of The Beginning Of The Duration Of Creatures (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the universe of creatures always existed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is an article of faith that the world began?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the creation of things was in the beginning of time?

TREATISE ON THE DISTINCTION OF THINGS IN GENERAL (Q[47])

— Question. 47 – Of The Distinctionn of Things In General (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the multitude and distinction of things come from God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the inequality of things is from God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is only one world?

TREATISE ON THE DISTINCTION OF GOOD AND EVIL (Q[48-49])

— Question. 48 – The Distinction of Things in Particular (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether evil is a nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether evil is found in things?
  • Article. 3 – Whether evil is in good as in its subject?
  • Article. 4 – Whether evil corrupts the whole good?
  • Article. 5 – Whether evil is adequately divided into pain* and fault?
  • Article. 6 – Whether pain has the nature of evil more than fault has?

— Question. 49 – The Cause Of Evil (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether good can be the cause of evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the supreme good, God, is the cause of evil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there be one supreme evil which is the cause of every evil?

TREATISE ON THE ANGELS (QQ[50-64])

— Question. 50 – Of The Substance of The Angels Absolutely Considered (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel is altogether incorporeal?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel is composed of matter and form?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels exist in any great number?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the angels differ in species?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the angels are incorruptible?

— Question. 51 – Of The Angels In Comparison With Bodies (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels have bodies naturally united to them?
  • Article. 2 – Whether angels assume bodies?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels exercise functions of life in the bodies assumed?

— Question. 52 – Of The Angels In Relation To Place (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel is in a place?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel can be in several places at once?
  • Article. 3 – Whether several angels can be at the same time in the same place?

— Question. 53 – Of The Local Movement Of The Angels (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel can be moved locally?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel passes through intermediate space?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the movement of an angel is instantaneous?

— Question. 54 – Of The Knowledge Of The Angels (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel’s act of understanding is his substance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the angel to understand is to exist?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angel’s power of intelligence is his essence?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there is an active and a passive intellect in an angel?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there is only intellectual knowledge in the angels?

— Question. 55 – Of The Medium Of The Angelic Knowledge (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels know all things by their substance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the angels understand by species drawn from things?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the higher angels understand by more universal species than the lower angels?

— Question. 56 – Of The Angel’s Knowledge Of Immaterial Things (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel knows himself?
  • Article. 2 – Whether one angel knows another?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angle knows God by his own natural principles?

— Question. 57 – Of The Angel’s Knowledge Of Material Things (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels know material things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel knows singulars?
  • Article. 3 – Whether angels know the future?
  • Article. 4 – Whether angels know secret thoughts?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the angels know the mysteries of grace?

— Question. 58 – Of The Mode Of Angelic Knowledge (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angel’s intellect is sometimes in potentiality, sometimes in act?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel can understand many things at the same time?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angel’s knowledge is discursive?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the angels understand by composing and dividing?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there can be falsehood in the intellect of an angel?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there is a ‘morning’ and an ‘evening’ knowledge in the angels?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the morning and evening knowledge are one?

— Question. 59 – The Will Of The Angels (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is will in the angels?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the angels the will differs from the intellect?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is free-will in the angels?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there is an irascible and a concupiscible appetite in the angels?

— Question. 60 – Of The Love Or Dilection Of The Angels (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is natural love or dilection in an angel?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there is love of choice in the angels?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angel loves himself with both natural love, and love of choice?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an angel loves another with natural love as he loves himself?
  • Article. 5 – Whether an angel by natural love loves God more than he loves himself?

— Question. 61 – Of The Production Of The Angels In The Order Of Natural Being (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels have a cause of their existence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the angel was produced by God from eternity?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels were created before the corporeal world?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the angels were created in the empyrean heaven?

— Question. 62 – Of The Perfection Of The Angels In The Order Of Grace And Of Glory (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels were created in beatitude?
  • Article. 2 – Whether an angel needs grace in order to turn to God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels were created in grace?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an angel merits his beatitude?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the angel obtained beatitude immediately after one act of merit?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the angels receive grace and glory according to the degree of their natural gifts?
  • Article. 7 – Whether natural knowledge and love remain in the beatified angels?
  • Article. 8 – Whether a beatified angel can sin?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the beatified angels advance in beatitude?

— Question. 63 – The Malice Of The Angels With Regard To Sin (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the evil of fault can be in the angels?
  • Article. 2 – Whether only the sin of pride and envy can exist in an angel?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the devil desired to be as God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether any demons are naturally wicked?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the devil was wicked by the fault of his own will in the first instant of his creation?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there was any interval between the creation and the fall of the angel?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the highest angel among those who sinned was the highest of all?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the sin of the highest angel was the cause of the others sinning?
  • Article. 9 – Whether those who sinned were as many as those who remained firm?

— Question. 64 – The Punishment Of The Demons (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the demons’ intellect is darkened by privation of the knowledge of all truth?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the will of the demons is obstinate in evil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is sorrow in the demons?
  • Article. 4 – Whether our atmosphere is the demons’ place of punishment?

TREATISE ON THE WORK OF THE SIX DAYS (QQ[65-74])

— Question. 65 – The Work Of Creation Of Corporeal Creatures (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether corporeal creatures are from God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether corporeal things were made on account of God’s goodness?
  • Article. 3 – Whether corporeal creatures were produced by God through the medium of the angels?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the forms of bodies are from the angels?

— Question. 66 – On The Order Of Creation Towards Distinction (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether formlessness of created matter preceded in time its formation?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the formless matter of all corporeal things is the same?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the empyrean heaven was created at the same time as formless matter?
  • Article. 4 – Whether time was created simultaneously with formless matter?

— Question. 67 – On The Work Of Distinction In Itself (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the word ‘light’ is used in its proper sense in speaking of spiritual things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether light is a body?
  • Article. 3 – Whether light is a quality?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the production of light is fittingly assigned to the first day?

— Question. 68 – On The Work Of The Second Day (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the firmament was made on the second day?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are waters above the firmament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the firmament divides waters from waters?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there is only one heaven?

— Question. 69 – On The Work Of The Third Day (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that the gathering together of the waters should take place, as recorded, on the third day?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was fitting that the production of plants should take place on the third day?

— Question. 70 – Of The Work Of Adornment, As Regards The Fourth Day (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the lights ought to have been produced on the fourth day?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the cause assigned for the production of the lights is reasonable?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the lights of heaven are living beings?

— Question. 71 – On The Work Of The Fifth Day (One Article)

— Question. 72 – On The Work Of The Sixth Day (One Article)

— Question. 73 – On The Things That Belong To The Seventh Day (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the completion of the Divine works ought to be ascribed to the seventh day?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God rested on the seventh day from all His work?
  • Article. 3 – Whether blessing and sanctifying are due to the seventh day?

— Question. 74 – On All The Seven Days In Common (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether these days are sufficiently enumerated?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all these days are one day?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Scripture uses suitable words to express the work of the six days?

TREATISE ON MAN (QQ[75-102])

— Question. 75 – Of Man Who Is Composed Of A Spiritual And A Corporeal Substance: And In The First Place, Concerning What Belongs To The Essence Of The Soul (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the soul is a body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the human soul is something subsistent?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the souls of brute animals are subsistent?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the soul is man?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the soul is composed of matter and form?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the human soul is incorruptible?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the soul is of the same species as an angel?

— Question. 76 – Of The Union Of Body And Soul (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the intellectual principle is united to the body as its form?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the intellectual principle is multiplied according to the number of bodies?
  • Article. 3 – Whether besides the intellectual soul there are in man other souls essentially different from one another?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in man there is another form besides the intellectual soul?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the intellectual soul is properly united to such a body?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the intellectual soul is united to the body through the medium of accidental dispositions?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the soul is united to the animal body by means of a body?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the soul is in each part of the body?

— Question. 77 – Of Those Things Which Belong To The Powers Of The Soul In General (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the essence of the soul is its power?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are several powers of the soul?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the powers are distinguished by their acts and objects?
  • Article. 4 – Whether among the powers of the soul there is order?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all the powers of the soul are in the soul as their subject?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the powers of the soul flow from its essence?
  • Article. 7 – Whether one power of the soul arises from another?
  • Article. 8 – Whether all the powers remain in the soul when separated from the body?

— Question. 78 – Of The Specific Powers Of The Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are to be distinguished five genera of powers in the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the parts of the vegetative soul are fittingly described as the nutritive, augmentative, and generative?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the five exterior senses are properly distinguished?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the interior senses are suitably distinguished?

— Question. 79 – Of The Intellectual Powers (Thirteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the intellect is a power of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the intellect is a passive power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is an active intellect?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the active intellect is something in the soul?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the active intellect is one in all?
  • Article. 6 – Whether memory is in the intellectual part of the soul?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the intellectual memory is a power distinct from the intellect?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the reason is distinct from the intellect?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the higher and lower reason are distinct powers?
  • Article. 10 – Whether intelligence is a power distinct from intellect?
  • Article. 11 – Whether the speculative and practical intellects are distinct powers?
  • Article. 12 – Whether synderesis is a special power of the soul distinct from the others?
  • Article. 13 – Whether conscience be a power?

— Question. 80 – Of The Appetitive Powers In General (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the appetite is a special power of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sensitive and intellectual appetites are distinct powers?

— Question. 81 – Of The Power Of Sensuality (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sensuality is only appetitive?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sensitive appetite is divided into the irascible and concupiscible as distinct powers?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the irascible and concupiscible appetites obey reason?

— Question. 82 – Of The Will (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the will desires something of necessity?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the will desires of necessity, whatever it desires?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the will is a higher power than the intellect?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the will moves the intellect?
  • Article. 5 – Whether we should distinguish irascible and concupiscible parts in the superior appetite?

— Question. 83 – Of Free-Will (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether man has free-will?
  • Article. 2 – Whether free-will is a power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether free-will is an appetitive power?
  • Article. 4 – Whether free-will is a power distinct from the will?

— Question. 84 – How The Soul While United To The Body Understands Corporeal Things Beneath It (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the soul knows bodies through the intellect?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the soul understands corporeal things through its essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the soul understands all things through innate species?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the intelligible species are derived by the soul from certain separate forms?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the intellectual soul knows material things in the eternal types?
  • Article. 6 – Whether intellectual knowledge is derived from sensible things?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the intellect can actually understand through the intelligible species of which it is possessed, without turning to the phantasms?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the judgment of the intellect is hindered through suspension of the sensitive powers?

— Question. 85 – Of The Mode And Order Of Understanding (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether our intellect understands corporeal and material things by abstraction from phantasms?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the intelligible species abstracted from the phantasm is related to our intellect as that which is understood?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the more universal is first in our intellectual cognition?
  • Article. 4 – Whether we can understand many things at the same time?
  • Article. 5 – Whether our intellect understands by composition and division?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the intellect can be false?
  • Article. 7 – Whether one person can understand one and the same thing better than another can?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the intellect understands the indivisible before the divisible?

— Question. 86 – What Our Intellect Knows In Material Things (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether our intellect knows singulars?
  • Article. 2 – Whether our intellect can know the infinite?
  • Article. 3 – Whether our intellect can know contingent things?
  • Article. 4 – Whether our intellect can know the future?

— Question. 87 – How The Intellectual Soul Knows Itself And All Within Itself (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the intellectual soul knows itself by its essence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether our intellect knows the habits of the soul by their essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether our intellect knows its own act?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the intellect understands the act of the will?

— Question. 88 – How The Human Soul Knows What Is Above Itself (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the human soul in the present state of life can understand immaterial substances in themselves?
  • Article. 2 – Whether our intellect can understand immaterial substances through its knowledge of material things?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God is the first object known by the human mind?

— Question. 89 – Of The Knowledge Of The Separated Soul (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the separated soul can understand anything?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the separated soul understands separate substances?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the separated soul knows all natural things?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the separated soul knows singulars?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the habit of knowledge here acquired remains in the separated soul?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the act of knowledge acquired here remains in the separated soul?
  • Article. 7 – Whether local distance impedes the knowledge in the separated soul?
  • Article. 8 – Whether separated souls know that takes place on earth?

— Question. 90 – Of The First Production Of Man’s Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the soul was made or was of God’s substance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the soul was produced by creation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the rational soul is produced by God immediately?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the human soul was produced before the body?

— Question. 91 – The Production Of The First Man’s Body (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the body of the first man was made of the slime of the earth?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the human body was immediately produced by God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the body of man was given an apt disposition?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the production of the human body is fittingly described in Scripture?

— Question. 92 – The Production Of The Woman (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the woman should have been made in the first production of things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether woman should have been made from man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the woman was fittingly made from the rib of man?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the woman was formed immediately by God?

— Question. 93 – The End Or Term Of The Production Of Man (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the image of God is in man?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the image of God is to be found in irrational creatures?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels are more to the image of God than man is?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the image of God is found in every man?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the image of God is in man according to the Trinity of Persons?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the image of God is in man as regards the mind only?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the image of God is to be found in the acts of the soul?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the image of the Divine Trinity is in the soul only by comparison with God as its object?
  • Article. 9 – Whether ‘likeness’ is properly distinguished from’image’?

— Question. 94 – Of The State And Condition Of The First Man As Regards His Intellect (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the first man saw God through His Essence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Adam in the state of innocence saw the angels through their essence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the first man knew all things?
  • Article. 4 – Whether man in his first state could be deceived?

— Question. 95 – Of Things Pertaining To The First Man’s Will — Namely, Grace And Righteousness (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the first man was created in grace?
  • Article. 2 – Whether passions existed in the soul of the first man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Adam had all the virtues?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the actions of the first man were less meritorious than ours are?

— Question. 96 – Of The Mastership Belonging To Man In The State Of Innocence (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Adam in the state of innocence had mastership over the animals?
  • Article. 2 – Whether man had mastership over all other creatures?
  • Article. 3 – Whether men were equal in the state of innocence?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in the state of innocence man would have been master over man?

— Question. 97 – Of The Preservation Of The Individual In The Primitive State (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the state of innocence man would have been immortal?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the state of innocence man would have been passible?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in the state of innocence man had need of food?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in the state of innocence man would have acquired immortality by the tree of life?

— Question. 98 – Of The Preservation Of The Species (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the state of innocence generation existed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the state of innocence there would have been generation by coition?

— Question. 99 – Of The Condition Of The Offspring As To The Body (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the state of innocence children would have had perfect strength of body as to the use of its members immediately after birth?
  • Article. 2 – Whether, in the primitive state, women would have been born?

— Question. 100 – Of The Condition Of The Offspring As Regards Righteousness (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether men would have been born in a state of righteousness?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the state of innocence children would have been born confirmed in righteousness?

— Question. 101 – Of The Condition Of The Offspring As Regards Knowledge (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the state of innocence children would have been born with perfect knowledge?
  • Article. 2 – Whether children would have had perfect use of reason at birth?

— Question. 102 – Of Man’s Abode, Which Is Paradise (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether paradise is a corporeal place?
  • Article. 2 – Whether paradise was a place adapted to be the abode of man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether man was placed in paradise to dress it and keep i t ?
  • Article. 4 – Whether man was created in paradise?

TREATISE ON THE CONSERVATION AND GOVERNMENT OF CREATURES (QQ[103-119])

— Question. 103 – Of The Government Of Things In General (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the world is governed by anyone?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the end of the government of the world is something outside the world?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the world is governed by one?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the effect of government is one or many?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all things are subject to the Divine government?
  • Article. 6 – Whether all things are immediately governed by God?
  • Article. 7 – Whether anything can happen outside the order of the Divine government?
  • Article. 8 – Whether anything can resist the order of the Divine government?

— Question. 104 – The Special Effects Of The Divine Government (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether creatures need to be kept in being by God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God preserves every creature immediately?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God can annihilate anything?
  • Article. 4 – Whether anything is annihilated?

— Question. 105 – Of The Change Of Creatures By God (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God can move the matter immediately to the form?
  • Article. 2 – Whether God can move a body immediately?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God moves the created intellect immediately?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God can move the created will?
  • Article. 5 – Whether God works in every agent?
  • Article. 6 – Whether God can do anything outside the established order of nature?
  • Article. 7 – Whether whatever God does outside the natural order is miraculous?
  • Article. 8 – Whether one miracle is greater than another?

— Question. 106 – How One Creature Moves Another (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether one angel enlightens another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether one angel moves another angel’s will?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an inferior angel can enlighten a superior angel?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the superior angel enlightens the inferior as regards all he himself knows?

— Question. 107 – The Speech Of The Angels (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether one angel speaks to another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the inferior angel speaks to the superior?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angel speaks to God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether local distance influences the angelic speech?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all the angels know what one speaks to another?

— Question. 108 – Of The Angelic Degrees Of Hierarchies And Orders (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all the angels are of one hierarchy?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are several orders in one hierarchy?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there are many angels in one order?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the distinction of hierarchies and orders comes from the angelic nature?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the orders of the angels are properly named?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the grades of the orders are properly assigned?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the orders will outlast the Day of Judgment?
  • Article. 8 – Whether men are taken up into the angelic orders?

— Question. 109 – The Ordering Of The Bad Angels (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are orders among the demons?
  • Article. 2 – Whether among the demons there is precedence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there is enlightenment in the demons?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the good angels have precedence over the bad angels?

— Question. 110 – How Angels Act On Bodies (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the corporeal creature is governed by the angels?
  • Article. 2 – Whether corporeal matter obeys the mere will of an angel?
  • Article. 3 – Whether bodies obey the angels as regards local motion?
  • Article. 4 – Whether angels can work miracles?

— Question. 111 – The Action Of The Angels On Man (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an angel can enlighten man?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the angels can change the will of man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angel can change man’s imagination?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an angel can change the human senses?

— Question. 112 – The Mission Of The Angels (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the angels are sent on works of ministry?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all the angels are sent in ministry?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all the angels who are sent, assist?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all the angels of the second hierarchy are sent?

— Question. 113 – Of The Guardianship Of The Good Angels (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether men are guarded by the angels?
  • Article. 2 – Whether each man is guarded by an angel?
  • Article. 3 – Whether to guard men belongs only to the lowest order of angels?
  • Article. 4 – Whether angels are appointed to the guardianship of all men?
  • Article. 5 – Whether an angel is appointed to guard a man from his birth?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the angel guardian ever forsakes a man?
  • Article. 7 – Whether angels grieve for the ills of those whom they guard?
  • Article. 8 – Whether there can be strife or discord among the angels?

— Question. 114 – Of The Assaults Of The Demons (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether men are assailed by the demons?
  • Article. 2 – Whether to tempt is proper to the devil?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all sins are due to the temptation of the devil?
  • Article. 4 – Whether demons can lead men astray by means of real miracles?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a demon who is overcome by man, is for this reason hindered from making further assaults?

— Question. 115 – Of The Action Of The Corporeal Creature (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a body can be active?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are any seminal virtues in corporeal matter?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the heavenly bodies are the cause of what is produced in bodies here below?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the heavenly bodies are the cause of human actions?
  • Article. 5 – Whether heavenly bodies can act on the demons?
  • Article. 6 – Whether heavenly bodies impose necessity on things subject to their action?

— Question. 116 – On Fate (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there be such a thing as fate?
  • Article. 2 – Whether fate is in created things?
  • Article. 3 – Whether fate is unchangeable?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all things are subject to fate?

— Question. 117 – Of Things Pertaining To The Action Of Man (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether one man can teach another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether man can teach the angels?
  • Article. 3 – Whether man by the power of his soul can change corporeal matter?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the separate human soul can move bodies at least locally?

— Question. 118 – Of The Production Of Man From Man As To The Soul (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the sensitive soul is transmitted with the semen?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the intellectual soul is produced from the semen?
  • Article. 3 – Whether human souls were created together at the beginning of the world?

— Question. 119 – Of The Propagation Of Man As To The Body (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether some part of the food is changed into true human nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the semen is produced from surplus food?