Summa Theologiae – Supplement to the Third Part

  • Editor’s Note

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE (CONTINUED) (QQ[1-28])

— Question. 1 – Of The Parts Of Penance, In Particular, And First Of Contrition (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether contrition is an assumed sorrow for sins, together with the purpose of confessing them and of making satisfaction for them?
  • Article. 2 – Whether contrition is an act of virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether attrition can become contrition?

— Question. 2 – Of The Object Of Contrition (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether man should be contrite on account of the punishment, and not only on account of his sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether contrition should be on account of original sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether we should have contrition for every actual sin?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a man is bound to have contrition for his future sins?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a man ought to have contrition for another’s sin?
  • Article. 6 – Whether it is necessary to have contrition for each mortal sin?

— Question. 3 – Of The Degree Of Contrition (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether contrition is the greatest possible sorrow in the world?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sorrow of contrition can be too great?
  • Article. 3 – Whether sorrow for one sin should be greater than for another?

— Question. 4 – Of The Time For Contrition (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the whole of this life is the time for contrition?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is expedient to grieve for sin continually?
  • Article. 3 – Whether our souls are contrite for sins even after this life?

— Question. 5 – Of The Effect Of Contrition (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the forgiveness of sin is the effect of contrition?
  • Article. 2 – Whether contrition can take away the debt of punishment entirely?
  • Article. 3 – Whether slight contrition suffices to blot out great sins?

— Question. 6 – Of Confession, As Regards Its Necessity (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether confession is necessary for salvation?
  • Article. 2 – Whether confession is according to the natural law?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all are bound to confession?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is lawful for a man to confess a sin which he has not committed?
  • Article. 5 – Whether one is bound to confess at once?
  • Article. 6 – Whether one can be dispensed from confession?

— Question. 7 – Of The Nature Of Confession (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Augustine fittingly defines confession?
  • Article. 2 – Whether confession is an act of virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether confession is an act of the virtue of penance?

— Question. 8 – Of The Minister Of Confession (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is necessary to confess to a priest?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is ever lawful to confess to another than a priest?
  • Article. 3 – Whether, outside a case of necessity, anyone who is not a priest may hear the confession of venial sins?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is necessary for one to confess to one’s own priest?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it is lawful for anyone to confess to another than his own priest, in virtue of a privilege or a command given by a superior?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a penitent, at the point of death, can be absolved by any priest?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the temporal punishment is imposed according to the degree of the fault?

— Question. 9 – Of The Quality Of Confession (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether confession can be lacking in form?
  • Article. 2 – Whether confession should be entire?
  • Article. 3 – Whether one may confess through another, or by writing?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the sixteen conditions usually assigned are necessary for confession?

— Question. 10 – Of The Effect Of Confession (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether confession delivers one from the death of sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether confession delivers from punishment in some way?
  • Article. 3 – Whether confession opens paradise?
  • Article. 4 – Whether confession gives hope of salvation?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a general confession suffices to blot out forgotten mortal sins?

— Question. 11 – Of The Seal Of Confession (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in every case the priest is bound to hide the sins which he knows under the seal of confession?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the seal of confession extends to other matters than those which have reference to confession?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the priest alone is bound by the seal of confession?
  • Article. 4 – Whether by the penitent’s permission, a priest may reveal to another a sin which he knows under the seal of confession?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a man may reveal that which he knows through confession and through some other source besides?

— Question. 12 – Of Satisfaction, As To Its Nature (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether satisfaction is a virtue or an act of virtue?
  • Article. 2 – Whether satisfaction is an act of justice?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the definition of satisfaction given in the text is suitable?

— Question. 13 – Of The Possibility Of Satisfaction (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether man can make satisfaction to God?
  • Article. 2 – Whether one man can fulfill satisfactory punishment for another?

— Question. 14 – Of The Quality Of Satisfaction (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a man can satisfy for one sin without satisfying for another?
  • Article. 2 – Whether, when deprived of charity, a man can make satisfaction for sins for which he was previously contrite?
  • Article. 3 – Whether previous satisfaction begins to avail after man is restored to charity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether works done without charity merit any, at least temporal, good?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the aforesaid works avail for the mitigation of the pains of hell?

— Question. 15 – Of The Means Of Making Satisfaction (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether satisfaction must be made by means of penal works?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the scourges of the present life are satisfactory?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the works of satisfaction are suitably enumerated?

— Question. 16 – Of Those Who Receive The Sacrament Of Penance (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether penance can be in the innocent?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the saints in glory have penance?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an angel can be the subject of penance?

— Question. 17 – Of The Power Of The Keys (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there should be keys in the Church?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the key is the power of binding and loosing, etc.?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there are two keys or only one?

— Question. 18 – Of The Effect Of The Keys (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the power of the keys extends to the remission of guilt? [*St. Thomas here follows the opinion of Peter Lombard, and replies in the negative. Later in life he altered his opinion. Cf. TP, Q[62], A[1]; TP, Q[64], A[1]; TP, Q[86], A[6]]
  • Article. 2 – Whether a priest can remit sin as to the punishment?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the priest can bind through the power of the keys?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the priest can bind and loose according to his own judgment?

— Question. 19 – Of The Ministers Of The Keys (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the priest of the Law had the keys?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ had the key?
  • Article. 3 – Whether priests alone have the keys?
  • Article. 4 – Whether holy men who are not priests have the keys?
  • Article. 5 – Whether wicked priests have the use of the keys?
  • Article. 6 – Whether those who are schismatics, heretics, excommunicate, suspended or degraded have the use of the keys?

— Question. 20 – Of Those On Whom The Power Of The Keys Can Be Exercised (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a priest can use the key which he has, on any man?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a priest can always absolve his subject?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man can use the keys with regard to his superior?

— Question. 21 – Of The Definition, Congruity And Cause Of Excommunication (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether excommunication is suitably defined as separation from the communion of the Church, etc?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Church should excommunicate anyone?
  • Article. 3 – Whether anyone should be excommunicated for inflicting temporal harm?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an excommunication unjustly pronounced has any effect?

— Question. 22 – Of Those Who Can Excommunicate Or Be Excommunicated (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every priest can excommunicate?
  • Article. 2 – Whether those who are not priests can excommunicate?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man who is excommunicated or suspended can excommunicate another?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a man can excommunicate himself, his equal, or his superior?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a sentence of excommunication can be passed on a body of men?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a man can be excommunicated who is already under sentence of excommunication?

— Question. 23 – Of Communication With Excommunicated Persons (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is lawful, in matters purely corporal, to communicate with an excommunicated person?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a person incurs excommunication for communicating with one who is excommunicated?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is always a mortal sin to communicate with an excommunicated person in other cases than those in which it is allowed?

— Question. 24 – Of Absolution From Excommunication (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any priest can absolve his subject from excommunication?
  • Article. 2 – Whether anyone can be absolved against his will?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man can be absolved from one excommunication without being absolved from all?

— Question. 25 – Of Indulgences (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an indulgence can remit any part of the punishment due for the satisfaction of sins?
  • Article. 2 – Whether indulgences are as effective as they claim to be?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an indulgence ought to be granted for temporal help?

— Question. 26 – Of Those Who Can Grant Indulgences (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every parish priest can grant indulgences?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a deacon or another who is not a priest can grant an indulgence?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a bishop can grant indulgences?
  • Article. 4 – Whether indulgences can be granted by one who is in mortal sin?

— Question. 27 – Of Those Whom Indulgences Avail (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an indulgence avails those who are in mortal sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether indulgences avail religious?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an indulgence can ever be granted to one who does not fulfill the conditions required?
  • Article. 4 – Whether an indulgence avails the person who grants i t ?

— Question. 28 – Of The Solemn Rite Of Penance (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a penance should be published or solemnized?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a solemn penance can be repeated?
  • Article. 3 – Whether solemn penance should be imposed on women and clerics, and whether any priest can impose it?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF THE ANOINTING OF THE SICK (QQ[29-33])

— Question. 29 – Extreme Unction (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Extreme Unction is a sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Extreme Unction is one sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this sacrament was instituted by Christ?
  • Article. 4 – Whether olive oil is a suitable matter for this sacrament?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the oil ought to be consecrated?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the matter of this sacrament need be consecrated by a bishop?
  • Article. 7 – Whether this sacrament has a form?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the form of this sacrament should be expressed by way of assertion or of petition?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the foregoing prayer is a suitable form for this sacrament?

— Question. 30 – Of The Effect Of This Sacrament (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Extreme Unction avails for the remission of sins?
  • Article. 2 – Whether bodily health is an effect of this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this sacrament imprints a character?

— Question. 31 – Of The Minister Of This Sacrament (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a layman can confer this sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether deacons can confer this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether none but a bishop can confer this sacrament?

— Question. 32 – On Whom Should This Sacrament Be Conferred And On What Part Of The Body? (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this sacrament ought to be conferred on those who are in good health?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this sacrament ought to be given in any kind of sickness?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this sacrament ought to be given to madmen and imbeciles?
  • Article. 4 – Whether this sacrament should be given to children?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the whole body should be anointed in this sacrament?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the parts to be anointed are suitably assigned?
  • Article. 7 – Whether those who are deformed in those parts should be anointed?

— Question. 33 – Of The Repetition Of This Sacrament (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this sacrament ought to be repeated?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this sacrament ought to be repeated during the same sickness?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF THE HOLY ORDERS (QQ[34-40])

— Question. 34 – Holy Orders (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there should be Order in the Church?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Order is properly defined?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Order is a sacrament?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the form of this sacrament is suitably expressed?
  • Article. 5 – Whether this sacrament has any matter?

— Question. 35 – Of The Effect Of This Sacrament (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sanctifying grace is conferred in the sacrament of Order?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in the sacrament of Order a character is imprinted in connection with all the Orders?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the character of Order presupposes the baptismal character?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the character of Order necessarily presupposes the character of Confirmation?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the character of one Order necessarily presupposes the character of another Order?

— Question. 36 – Of The Qualities Required Of Those Who Receive This Sacrament (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether goodness of life is required of those who receive Orders?
  • Article. 2 – Whether knowledge of all Holy Writ is required?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a man obtains the degrees of Order by the merit of one’s life?
  • Article. 4 – Whether he who raises the unworthy to Orders commits a sin?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a man who is in sin can without sin exercise the Order he has received? [*Cf. TP, Q[64], A[6]]

— Question. 37 – Of The Distinction Of Orders, Of Their Acts, And The Imprinting Of The Character (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether we ought to distinguish several Orders?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there are seven Orders?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Order should be divided into those that are sacred and those that are not?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the acts of the Orders are rightly assigned in the text?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the character is imprinted on a priest when the chalice is handed to him?

— Question. 38 – Of Those Who Confer This Sacrament (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a bishop alone confers the sacrament of Order?
  • Article. 2 – Whether heretics and those who are cut off from the Church can confer Orders? [*Cf. TP, Q[64], AA[5],9]

— Question. 39 – Of The Impediments To This Sacrament (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the female sex is an impediment to receiving Orders?
  • Article. 2 – Whether boys and those who lack the use of reason can receive Orders?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the state of slavery is an impediment to receiving Orders?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a man should be debarred from receiving Orders on account of homicide?
  • Article. 5 – Whether those of illegitimate birth should be debarred from receiving Orders?
  • Article. 6 – Whether lack of members should be an impediment?

— Question. 40 – Of The Things Annexed To The Sacrament Of Order (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether those who are ordained ought to wear the tonsure?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the tonsure is an Order?
  • Article. 3 – Whether by receiving the tonsure a man renounces temporal goods?
  • Article. 4 – Whether above the priestly Order there ought to be an episcopal power?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the episcopate is an Order?
  • Article. 6 – Whether in the Church there can be anyone above the bishops?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the vestments of the ministers are fittingly instituted in the Church?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF MARRIAGE (QQ[41-68])

— Question. 41 – Matrimony (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether matrimony is of natural law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether matrimony still comes under a precept?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the marriage act is always sinful?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the marriage act is meritorious?

— Question. 42 – Of Matrimony As A Sacrament (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether matrimony is a sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this sacrament ought to have been instituted before sin was committed?
  • Article. 3 – Whether matrimony confers grace?
  • Article. 4 – Whether carnal intercourse is an integral part of this sacrament?

— Question. 43 – Of Matrimony With Regard To The Betrothal (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a betrothal is a promise of future marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether seven years is fittingly assigned as the age for betrothal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a betrothal can be dissolved?

— Question. 44 – Of The Definition Of Matrimony (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether matrimony is a kind of joining?
  • Article. 2 – Whether matrimony is fittingly named?
  • Article. 3 – Whether matrimony is fittingly defined in the text?

— Question. 45 – Of The Marriage Consent Considered In Itself (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether consent is the efficient cause of matrimony?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the consent needs to be expressed in words?
  • Article. 3 – Whether consent given in words expressive of the future makes a marriage?
  • Article. 4 – Whether, in the absence of inward consent, a marriage is made by consent given in words of the present?
  • Article. 5 – Whether consent given secretly in words of the present makes a marriage?

— Question. 46 – Of The Consent To Which An Oath Or Carnal Intercourse Is Appended (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether an oath added to the consent that is expressed in words of the future tense makes a marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether carnal intercourse after consent expressed in words of the future makes a marriage?

— Question. 47 – Of Compulsory And Conditional Consent (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a compulsory consent is possible?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a constant man can be compelled by fear?
  • Article. 3 – Whether compulsory consent invalidates a marriage?
  • Article. 4 – Whether compulsory consent makes a marriage as regards the party who uses compulsion?
  • Article. 5 – Whether conditional consent makes a marriage?
  • Article. 6 – Whether one can be compelled by one’s father’s command to marry?

— Question. 48 – Of The Object Of The Consent (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the consent that makes a marriage is a consent to carnal intercourse?
  • Article. 2 – Whether marriage can result from one person’s consent to take another for a base motive?

— Question. 49 – Of The Marriage Goods* (Six Articles) [*’Bona matrimonii,’ variously rendered marriage goods, marriage blessings, and advantages of marriage.]

  • Article. 1 – Whether certain blessings are necessary in order to excuse marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the goods of marriage are sufficiently enumerated?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the sacrament is the chief of the marriage goods?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the marriage act is excused by the aforesaid goods?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the marriage act can be excused without the marriage goods?
  • Article. 6 – Whether it is a mortal sin for a man to have knowledge of his wife, with the intention not of a marriage good but merely of pleasure?

— Question. 50 – Of The Impediments Of Marriage, In General (One Article)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is fitting that impediments should be assigned to marriage?

— Question. 51 – Of The Impediment Of Error (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is right to reckon error as an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every error is an impediment to matrimony?

— Question. 52 – Of The Impediment Of The Condition Of Slavery (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the condition of slavery is an impediment to matrimony?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a slave can marry without his master’s consent?
  • Article. 3 – Whether slavery can supervene to marriage?
  • Article. 4 – Whether children should follow the condition of their father?

— Question. 53 – Of The Impediment Of Vows And Orders (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether marriage already contracted should be annulled by the obligation of a simple vow?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a solemn vow dissolves a marriage already contracted?
  • Article. 3 – Whether order is an impediment to matrimony?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a sacred order cannot supervene to matrimony?

— Question. 54 – Of The Impediment Of Consanguinity (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether consanguinity is rightly defined?
  • Article. 2 – Whether consanguinity is fittingly distinguished by degrees and lines?
  • Article. 3 – Whether consanguinity is an impediment to marriage by virtue of the natural law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the degrees of consanguinity that are an impediment to marriage could be fixed by the Church?

— Question. 55 – Of The Impediment Of Affinity (Eleven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a person contracts affinity through the marriage of a blood-relation?
  • Article. 2 – Whether affinity remains after the death of husband or wife?
  • Article. 3 – Whether unlawful intercourse causes affinity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether affinity is caused by betrothal?
  • Article. 5 – Whether affinity is a cause of affinity?
  • Article. 6 – Whether affinity is an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 7 – Whether affinity in itself admits of degrees?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the degrees of affinity extend in the same way as the degrees of consanguinity?
  • Article. 9 – Whether a marriage contracted by persons with the degrees of affinity or consanguinity should always be annulled?
  • Article. 10 – Whether it is necessary to proceed by way of accusation for the annulment of a marriage contracted by persons related to each other by affinity or consanguinity?
  • Article. 11 – Whether in a suit of this kind one should proceed by hearing witnesses in the same way as in other suits?

— Question. 56 – Of The Impediment Of Spiritual Relationship (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether spiritual relationship is an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether spiritual relationship is contracted by baptism only?
  • Article. 3 – Whether spiritual relationship is contracted between the person baptized and the person who raises him from the sacred font?
  • Article. 4 – Whether spiritual relationship passes from husband to wife?
  • Article. 5 – Whether spiritual relationship passes to the godfather’s carnal children?

— Question. 57 – Of Legal Relationship, Which Is By Adoption (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether adoption is rightly defined?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a tie that is an impediment to marriage is contracted through adoption?
  • Article. 3 – Whether legal relationship is contracted only between the adopting father and the adopted child?

— Question. 58 – Of The Impediments Of Impotence, Spell, Frenzy Or Madness, Incest And Defective Age (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether impotence is an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a spell can be an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 3 – Whether madness is an impediment to marriage?
  • Article. 4 – Whether marriage is annulled by the husband committing incest with his wife’s sister?
  • Article. 5 – Whether defective age is an impediment to marriage?

— Question. 59 – Of Disparity Of Worship As An Impediment To Marriage (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a believer can marry an unbeliever?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there can be marriage between unbelievers?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the husband, being converted to the faith, may remain with his wife is she be unwilling to be converted?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a believer can, after his conversion, put away his unbelieving wife if she be willing to cohabit with him without insult to the Creator?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the believer who leaves his unbelieving wife can take another wife?
  • Article. 6 – Whether other sins dissolve marriage?

— Question. 60 – Of Wife-Murder (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is lawful for a man to kill his wife if she be discovered in the act of adultery?
  • Article. 2 – Whether wife-murder is an impediment to marriage?

— Question. 61 – Of The Impediment To Marriage, Arising From A Solemn Vow (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether one party after the marriage has been consummated can enter religion without the other’s consent?
  • Article. 2 – Whether before the marriage has been consummated one consort can enter religion without the other’s consent?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the wife may take another husband if her husband has entered religion before the consummation of the marriage?

— Question. 62 – Of The Impediment That Supervenes To Marriage After Its Consummation, Namely Fornication (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is lawful for a husband to put away his wife on account of fornication?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the husband is bound by precept to put away his wife when she is guilty of fornication?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the husband can on his own judgment put away his wife on account of fornication?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in a case of divorce husband and wife should be judged on a par with each other?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a husband can marry again after having a divorce?
  • Article. 6 – Whether husband and wife may be reconciled after being divorced?

— Question. 63 – Of Second Marriages (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a second marriage is lawful?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a second marriage is a sacrament?

— Question. 64 – Of The Things Annexed To Marriage, And First Of The Payment Of The Marriage Debt (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether husband and wife are mutually bound to the payment of the marriage debt?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a husband is bound to pay the debt if his wife does not ask for it?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is allowable for a menstruous wife to ask for the marriage debt? [*This and the Fourth Article are omitted in the Leonine edition.]
  • Article. 4 – Whether a menstruous woman should or may lawfully pay the marriage debt to her husband if he ask for it? [*This and the previous article are omitted in the Leonine edition.]
  • Article. 5 – Whether husband and wife are equal in the marriage act?
  • Article. 6 – Whether husband and wife can take a vow contrary to the marriage debt without their mutual consent?
  • Article. 7 – Whether it is forbidden to demand the debt on holy days?
  • Article. 8 – Whether it is a mortal sin to ask for the debt at a holy time?
  • Article. 9 – Whether one spouse is bound to pay the debt to the other at a festal time?
  • Article. 10 – Whether weddings should be forbidden at certain times? [*This article is omitted in the Leonine edition.]

— Question. 65 – Of Plurality Of Wives (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is against the natural law to have several wives?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was ever lawful to have several wives?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is against the natural law to have a concubine?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is a mortal sin to have intercourse with a concubine?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it was ever lawful to have a concubine?

— Question. 66 – Of Bigamy And Of The Irregularity Contracted Thereby (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether irregularity attaches to bigamy?
  • Article. 2 – Whether irregularity results from bigamy, when one husband has two wives, one in law, the other in fact?
  • Article. 3 – Whether irregularity is contracted by marrying one who is not a virgin?
  • Article. 4 – Whether bigamy is removed by Baptism?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it is lawful for a bigamist to receive a dispensation?

— Question. 67 – Of The Bill Of Divorce (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether inseparableness of the wife is of natural law?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it may have been lawful by dispensation to put away a wife?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it was lawful to divorce a wife under the Mosaic law?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it was lawful for a divorced wife to have another husband?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a husband could lawfully take back the wife he had divorced?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the reason for divorce was hatred for the wife?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the causes of divorce had to be written in the bill?

— Question. 68 – Of Illegitimate Children (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether children born out of true marriage are illegitimate?
  • Article. 2 – Whether children should suffer any loss through being illegitimate?
  • Article. 3 – Whether an illegitimate son can be legitimized?

TREATISE ON THE RESURRECTION (QQ[69-85])

— Question. 69 – Of Matters Concerning The Resurrection, And First Of The Place Where Souls Are After Death (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether places are appointed to receive souls after death?
  • Article. 2 – Whether souls are conveyed to heaven or hell immediately after death?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the souls who are in heaven or hell are able to go from thence?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the limbo of hell is the same as Abraham’s bosom?
  • Article. 5 – Whether limbo is the same as the hell of the damned?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the limbo of children is the same as the limbo of the Fathers?
  • Article. 7 – Whether so many abodes should be distinguished?

— Question. 70 – Of The Quality Of The Soul After Leaving The Body, And Of The Punishment Inflicted On It By Material Fire (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the sensitive powers remain in the separated soul? [*Cf. FP, Q[77], A[8]]
  • Article. 2 – Whether the acts of the sensitive powers remain in the separated soul?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the separated soul can suffer from a bodily fire?

— Question. 71 – Of The Suffrages For The Dead (Fourteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the suffrages of one person can profit others?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the dead can be assisted by the works of the living?
  • Article. 3 – Whether suffrages performed by sinners profit the dead?
  • Article. 4 – Whether suffrages offered by the living for the dead profit those who offer them?
  • Article. 5 – Whether suffrages profit those who are in hell?
  • Article. 6 – Whether suffrages profit those who are in purgatory?
  • Article. 7 – Whether suffrages avail the children who are in limbo?
  • Article. 8 – Whether suffrages profit the saints in heaven?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the prayers of the Church, the sacrifice of the altar and alms profit the departed?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the indulgences of the Church profit the dead?
  • Article. 11 – Whether the burial service profits the dead?
  • Article. 12 – Whether suffrages offered for one deceased person profit the person for whom they are offered more than others?
  • Article. 13 – Whether suffrages offered for several are of as much value to each one as if they had been offered for each in particular?
  • Article. 14 – Whether general suffrages avail those for whom special suffrages are not offered, as much as special suffrages avail those for whom they are offered in addition to general suffrages?

— Question. 72 – Of Prayers With Regard To The Saints In Heaven (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the saints have knowledge of our prayers?
  • Article. 2 – Whether we ought to call upon the saints to pray for u s ?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the prayers which the saints pour forth to God for us are always granted?

— Question. 73 – Of The Signs That Will Precede The Judgment (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any signs will precede the Lord’s coming to judgment?
  • Article. 2 – Whether towards the time of the judgment the sun and moon will be darkened in very truth?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the virtues of heaven will be moved when our Lord shall come?

— Question. 74 – Of The Fire Of The Final Conflagration (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the world is to be cleansed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the cleansing of the world will be effected by fire?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the fire whereby the world will be cleansed will be of the same species with elemental fire?
  • Article. 4 – Whether that fire will cleanse also the higher heavens?
  • Article. 5 – Whether that fire will consume the other elements?
  • Article. 6 – Whether all the elements will be cleansed by that fire?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the fire of the final conflagration is to follow the judgment?
  • Article. 8 – Whether that fire will have such an effect on men as is described?
  • Article. 9 – Whether that fire will engulf the wicked?

— Question. 75 – Of The Resurrection (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there is to be a resurrection of the body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the resurrection will be for all without exception?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the resurrection is natural?

— Question. 76 – Of The Cause Of The Resurrection (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the resurrection of Christ is the cause of our resurrection?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sound of the trumpet will be the cause of our resurrection?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels will do anything towards the resurrection?

— Question. 77 – Of The Time And Manner Of The Resurrection (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the time of our resurrection should be delayed till the end of the world?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the time of our resurrection is hidden?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the resurrection will take place at night-time?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the resurrection will happen suddenly or by degrees?

— Question. 78 – Of The Term ‘Wherefrom’ Of The Resurrection (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether death will be the term ‘wherefrom’ of the resurrection in all cases?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all will rise again from ashes?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the ashes from which the human body will be restored have any natural inclination towards the soul which will be united to them?

— Question. 79 – Of The Conditions Of Those Who Rise Again, And First Of Their Identity (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the resurrection the soul will be reunited to the same identical body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it will be identically the same man that shall rise again?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the ashes of the human body must needs, by the resurrection, return to the same parts of the body that were dissolved into them?

— Question. 80 – Of The Integrity Of The Bodies In The Resurrection (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all the members of the human body will rise again?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the hair and nails will rise again in the human body?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the humors will rise again in the body?
  • Article. 4 – Whether whatever in the body belonged to the truth of human nature will rise again in it?
  • Article. 5 – Whether whatever was materially in a man’s members will all rise again?

— Question. 81 – Of The Quality Of Those Who Rise Again (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all will rise again of the same age?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all will rise again of the same stature?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all will rise again of the male sex?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all will rise again to animal life so as to exercise the functions of nutrition and generation?

— Question. 82 – Of The Impassibility Of The Bodies Of The Blessed After Their Resurrection (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the bodies of the saints will be impassible after the resurrection?
  • Article. 2 – Whether all will be equally impassible?
  • Article. 3 – Whether impassibility excludes actual sensation from glorified bodies?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in the blessed, after the resurrection, all the senses will be in act?

— Question. 83 – Of The Subtlety Of The Bodies Of The Blessed (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether subtlety is a property of the glorified body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether by reason of this subtlety a glorified body is able to be in the same place with another body not glorified?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is possible, by a miracle, for two bodies to be in the same place?
  • Article. 4 – Whether one glorified body can be in the same place together with another glorified body?
  • Article. 5 – Whether by virtue of its subtlety a glorified body will no longer need to be in an equal place?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the glorified body, by reason of its subtlety, will be impalpable?

— Question. 84 – Of The Agility Of The Bodies Of The Blessed (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the glorified bodies will be agile?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the saints will never use their agility for the purpose of movement?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the movement of the saints will be instantaneous?

— Question. 85 – Of The Clarity Of The Beatified Bodies (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether clarity is becoming to the glorified body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the clarity of the glorified body is visible to the non-glorified eye?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a glorified body will be necessarily seen by a non-glorified body?

TREATISE ON THE LAST THINGS (QQ[86-99])

— Question. 86 – Of The Conditions Under Which The Bodies Of The Damned Will Rise Again (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the bodies of the damned will rise again with their deformities?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the bodies of the damned will be incorruptible?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the bodies of the damned will be impassible?

— Question. 87 – Of The Knowledge Which, After Rising Again, Men Will Have At The Judgment Concerning Merits And Demerits (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether after the resurrection every one will know what sins he has committed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every one will be able to read all that is in another’s conscience?
  • Article. 3 – Whether all merits and demerits, one’s own as well as those of others, will be seen by anyone at a single glance?

— Question. 88 – Of The General Judgment, As To The Time And Place At Which It Will Be (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there will be a general judgment?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the judgment will take place by word of mouth?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the time of the future judgment is unknown?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the judgment will take place in the valley of Josaphat?

— Question. 89 – Of Those Who Will Judge And Of Those Who Will Be Judged At The General Judgment (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether any men will judge together with Christ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the judicial power corresponds to voluntary poverty?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angels will judge?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the demons will carry out the sentence of the Judge on the damned?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all men will be present at the judgment?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the good will be judged at the judgment?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the wicked will be judged?
  • Article. 8 – Whether at the coming judgment the angels will be judged?

— Question. 90 – Of The Form Of The Judge In Coming To The Judgment (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ will judge under the form of His humanity?
  • Article. 2 – Whether at the judgment Christ will appear in His glorified humanity?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Godhead can be seen by the wicked without joy?

— Question. 91 – Of The Quality Of The World After The Judgment (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the world will be renewed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the movement of the heavenly bodies will cease?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the brightness of the heavenly bodies will be increased at this renewal?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the elements will be renewed by an addition of brightness?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the plants and animals will remain in this renewal?

— Question. 92 – Of The Vision Of The Divine Essence In Reference To The Blessed* (Three Articles) [*Cf. FP, Q[12]]

  • Article. 1 – Whether the human intellect can attain to the vision of God in His essence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether after the resurrection the saints will see God with the eyes of the body? [*Cf. FP, Q[12], A[3]]
  • Article. 3 – Whether the saints, seeing God, see all that God sees? [*Cf. FP, Q[12], AA[7],8]

— Question. 93 – Of The Happiness Of The Saints And Their Mansions (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the happiness of the saints will be greater after the judgment than before?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the degrees of beatitude should be called mansions?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the various mansions are distinguished according to the various degrees of charity?

— Question. 94 – Of The Relations Of The Saints Towards The Damned (Three Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the blessed in heaven will see the sufferings of the damned?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the blessed pity the unhappiness of the damned?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the blessed rejoice in the punishment of the wicked?

— Question. 95 – Of The Gifts* Of The Blessed (Five Articles) [*The Latin ‘dos’ signifies a dowry.]

  • Article. 1 – Whether any gifts should be assigned as dowry to the blessed?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the dowry is the same as beatitude*? [*Cf. FP, Q[12], A[7], ad 1; FS, Q[4], A[3]]
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is fitting that Christ should receive a dowry?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the angels receive the dowries?
  • Article. 5 – Whether three dowries of the soul are suitably assigned?

— Question. 96 – Of The Aureoles (Thirteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the aureole is the same as the essential reward which is called the aurea?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the aureole differs from the fruit?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a fruit is due to the virtue of continence alone?
  • Article. 4 – Whether three fruits are fittingly assigned to the three parts of continence?
  • Article. 5 – Whether an aureole is due on account of virginity?
  • Article. 6 – Whether an aureole is due to martyrs?
  • Article. 7 – Whether an aureole is due to doctors?
  • Article. 8 – Whether an aureole is due to Christ?
  • Article. 9 – Whether an aureole is due to the angels?
  • Article. 10 – Whether an aureole is also due to the body?
  • Article. 11 – Whether three aureoles are fittingly assigned, those of virgins, of martyrs, and of doctors?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the virgin’s aureole is the greatest of all?
  • Article. 13 – Whether one person has an aureole more excellently than another person?

— Question. 97 – Of The Punishment Of The Damned (Seven Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in hell the damned are tormented by the sole punishment of fire?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the worm of the damned is corporeal?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the weeping of the damned will be corporeal?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the damned are in material darkness?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the fire of hell will be corporeal?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the fire of hell is of the same species as ours?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the fire of hell is beneath the earth?

— Question. 98 – Of The Will And Intellect Of The Damned (Nine Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether every act of will in the damned is evil?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the damned repent of the evil they have done?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the damned by right and deliberate reason would wish not to be?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in hell the damned would wish others were damned who are not damned?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the damned hate God?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the damned demerit?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the damned can make use of the knowledge they had in this world? [*Cf. FP, Q[89]]
  • Article. 8 – Whether the damned will ever think of God?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the damned see the glory of the blessed?

— Question. 99 – Of God’s Mercy And Justice Towards The Damned (Five Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether by Divine justice an eternal punishment is inflicted on sinners? [*Cf. FS, Q[87], AA[3],4]
  • Article. 2 – Whether by God’s mercy all punishment of the damned, both men and demons, comes to an end?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God’s mercy suffers at least men to be punished eternally?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the punishment of Christians is brought to an end by the mercy of God?
  • Article. 5 – Whether all those who perform works of mercy will be punished eternally?