Summa Theologiae – Third Part

  • Prologue

TREATISE ON THE INCARNATION (QQ[1-59])

— Question. 1 – Of The Fitness Of The Incarnation (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that God should become incarnate?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was necessary for the restoration of the human race that the Word of God should become incarnate?
  • Article. 3 – Whether, if man had not sinned, God would have become incarnate?
  • Article. 4 – Whether God became incarnate in order to take away actual sin, rather than to take away original sin?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it was fitting that God should become incarnate in the beginning of the human race?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the Incarnation ought to have been put off till the end of the world?

— Question. 2 – Of The Mode Of Union Of The Word Incarnate (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Union of the Incarnate Word took place in the nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the union of the Incarnate Word took place in the Person?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the union of the Word Incarnate took place in the suppositum or hypostasis?
  • Article. 4 – Whether after the Incarnation the Person or Hypostasis of Christ is composite?
  • Article. 5 – Whether in Christ there is any union of soul and body?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the human nature was united to the Word of God accidentally?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the union of the Divine nature and the human is anything created?
  • Article. 8 – Whether union is the same as assumption?
  • Article. 9 – Whether the union of the two natures in Christ is the greatest of all unions?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the union of the Incarnation took place by grace?
  • Article. 11 – Whether any merits preceded the union of the Incarnation?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the grace of union was natural to the man Christ?

— Question. 3 – Of The Mode Of Union On The Part Of The Person Assuming (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is befitting for a Divine Person to assume?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is befitting to the Divine Nature to assume?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Nature abstracted from the Personality can assume?
  • Article. 4 – Whether one Person without another can assume a created nature?
  • Article. 5 – Whether each of the Divine Persons could have assumed human nature?
  • Article. 6 – Whether several Divine Persons can assume one and the same individual nature?
  • Article. 7 – Whether one Divine Person can assume two human natures?
  • Article. 8 – Whether it was more fitting that the Person of the Son rather than any other Divine Person should assume human nature?

— Question. 4 – Of The Mode Of Union On The Part Of The Human Nature (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether human nature was more assumable by the Son of God than any other nature?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Son of God assumed a person?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Divine Person assumed a man?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed human nature abstracted from all individuals?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed human nature in all individuals?
  • Article. 6 – Whether it was fitting for the Son of God to assume human nature of the stock of Adam?

— Question. 5 – Of The Parts Of Human Nature Which Were Assumed (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed a true body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed a carnal or earthly body?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Son of God assumed a soul?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Son of God assumed a human mind or intellect?

— Question. 6 – Of The Order Of Assumption (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Son of God assumed flesh through the medium of the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Son of God assumed a soul through the medium of the spirit or mind?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the soul was assumed before the flesh by the Son of God?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the flesh of Christ was assumed by the Word before being united to the soul?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the whole human nature was assumed through the medium of the parts?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the human nature was assumed through the medium of grace?

— Question. 7 – Of The Grace Of Christ As An Individual Man (Thirteen Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in the Soul of Christ there was any habitual grace?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in Christ there were virtues?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in Christ there was faith?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in Christ there was hope?
  • Article. 5 – Whether in Christ there were the gifts?
  • Article. 6 – Whether in Christ there was the gift of fear?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the gratuitous graces were in Christ?
  • Article. 8 – Whether in Christ there was the gift of prophecy?
  • Article. 9 – Whether in Christ there was the fulness of grace?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the fulness of grace is proper to Christ?
  • Article. 11 – Whether the grace of Christ is infinite?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the grace of Christ could increase?
  • Article. 13 – Whether the habitual grace of Christ followed after the union?

— Question. 8 – Of The Grace Of Christ, As He Is The Head Of The Church (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ is the Head of the Church?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ is the Head of men as to their bodies or only as to their souls?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ is the Head of all men?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ is the Head of the angels?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the grace of Christ, as Head of the Church, is the same as His habitual grace, inasmuch as He is Man?
  • Article. 6 – Whether it is proper to Christ to be Head of the Church?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the devil is the head of all the wicked?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Anti-christ may be called the head of all the wicked?

— Question. 9 – Of Christ’s Knowledge In General (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ had any knowledge besides the Divine?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ had the knowledge which the blessed or comprehensors have?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ had an imprinted or infused knowledge?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ had any acquired knowledge?

— Question. 10 – Of The Beatific Knowledge Of Christ’s Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the soul of Christ comprehended the Word or the Divine Essence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Son of God knew all things in the Word?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the soul of Christ can know the infinite in the Word?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the soul of Christ sees the Word or the Divine Essence more clearly than does any other creature?

— Question. 11 – Of The Knowledge Imprinted Or Infused In The Soul Of Christ (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether by this imprinted or infused knowledge Christ knew all things?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ could use this knowledge by turning to phantasms?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this knowledge is collative?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in Christ this knowledge was greater than the knowledge of the angels?
  • Article. 5 – Whether this knowledge was habitual?
  • Article. 6 – Whether this knowledge was distinguished by divers habits?

— Question. 12 – Of The Acquired Or Empiric Knowledge Of Christ’s Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ knew all things by this acquired or empiric knowledge?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ advanced in acquired or empiric knowledge?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ learned anything from man?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ received knowledge from the angels?

— Question. 13 – Of The Power Of Christ’s Soul (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to the transmutation of creatures?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to His own body?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence as regards the execution of His will?

— Question. 14 – Of The Defects Of Body Assumed By The Son Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Son of God in human nature ought to have assumed defects of body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ was of necessity subject to these defects?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ contracted these defects?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ ought to have assumed all the bodily defects of men?

— Question. 15 – Of The Defects Of Soul Assumed By Christ (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there was sin in Christ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there was the ‘fomes’ of sin in Christ?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in Christ there was ignorance?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s soul was passible?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there was sensible pain in Christ?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there was sorrow in Christ?
  • Article. 7 – Whether there was fear in Christ?
  • Article. 8 – Whether there was wonder in Christ?
  • Article. 9 – Whether there was anger in Christ?
  • Article. 10 – Whether Christ was at once a wayfarer and a comprehensor?

— Question. 16 – Of Those Things Which Are Applicable To Christ In His Being And Becoming (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this is true: ‘God is man’?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this is true: ‘Man is God’?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ can be called a lordly man?
  • Article. 4 – Whether what belongs to the human nature can be predicated of God?
  • Article. 5 – Whether what belongs to the human nature can be predicated of the Divine Nature?
  • Article. 6 – Whether this is true: ‘God was made man’?
  • Article. 7 – Whether this is true: ‘Man was made God’?
  • Article. 8 – Whether this is true: ‘Christ is a creature’?
  • Article. 9 – Whether this Man, i.e. Christ, began to be?
  • Article. 10 – Whether this is true: ‘Christ as Man is a creature’?
  • Article. 11 – Whether this is true: ‘Christ as Man is God’?
  • Article. 12 – Whether this is true: ‘Christ as Man is a hypostasis or person’?

— Question. 17 – Of Christ’s Unity Of Being (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ is one or two?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there is only one being in Christ?

— Question. 18 – Of Christ’s Unity Of Will (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are two wills in Christ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in Christ there was a will of sensuality besides the will of reason?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in Christ there were two wills as regards the reason?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there was free-will in Christ?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the human will of Christ was altogether conformed to the Divine will in the thing willed?
  • Article. 6 – Whether there was contrariety of wills in Christ?

— Question. 19 – Of The Unity Of Christ’s Operation (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether in Christ there is only one operation of the Godhead and Manhood?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in Christ there are several human operations?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the human action of Christ could be meritorious to Him?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ could merit for others?

— Question. 20 – Of Christ’s Subjection To The Father (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether we may say that Christ is subject to the Father?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ is subject to Himself?

— Question. 21 – Of Christ’s Prayer (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is becoming of Christ to pray?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it pertains to Christ to pray according to His sensuality?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it was fitting that Christ should pray for Himself?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s prayer was always heard?

— Question. 22 – Of The Priesthood Of Christ (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is fitting that Christ should be a priest?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ was Himself both priest and victim?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the effect of Christ’s priesthood is the expiation of sins?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the effect of the priesthood of Christ pertained not only to others, but also to Himself?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the priesthood of Christ endures for ever?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the priesthood of Christ was according to the order of Melchisedech?

— Question. 23 – Of Adoption As Befitting To Christ (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is fitting that God should adopt sons?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it is fitting that the whole Trinity should adopt?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is proper to the rational nature to be adopted?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ as man is the adopted Son of God?

— Question. 24 – Of The Predestination Of Christ (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is befitting that Christ should be predestinated?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this proposition is false: ‘Christ as man was predestinated to be the Son of God’?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s predestination is the exemplar of ours?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s predestination is the cause of ours?

— Question. 25 – Of The Adoration Of Christ (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s humanity and Godhead are to be adored with the same adoration?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s humanity should be adored with the adoration of ‘latria’?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the image of Christ should be adored with the adoration of ‘latria’?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s cross should be worshipped with the adoration of ‘latria’?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the Mother of God should be worshipped with the adoration of ‘latria’?
  • Article. 6 – Whether any kind of worship is due to the relics of the saints?

— Question. 26 – Of Christ As Called The Mediator Of God And Man (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is proper to Christ to be the Mediator of God and man?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ, is the Mediator of God and men?

— Question. 27 – Of The Sanctification Of The Blessed Virgin (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Blessed Virgin was sanctified before her birth from the womb?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Blessed Virgin was sanctified before animation?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Blessed Virgin was cleansed from the infection of the fomes?
  • Article. 4 – Whether by being sanctified in the womb the Blessed Virgin was preserved from all actual sin?
  • Article. 5 – Whether, by her sanctification in the womb, the Blessed Virgin received the fulness of grace?
  • Article. 6 – Whether after Christ, it was proper to the Blessed Virgin to be sanctified in the womb?

— Question. 28 – Of The Virginity Of The Mother Of God (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Mother of God was a virgin in conceiving Christ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s Mother was a virgin in His birth?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s Mother remained a virgin after His birth?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Mother of God took a vow of virginity?

— Question. 29 – Of The Espousals Of The Mother Of God (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ should have been born of an espoused virgin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there was a true marriage between Mary and Joseph?

— Question. 30 – Of The Annunciation Of The Blessed Virgin (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was necessary to announce to the Blessed Virgin that which was to be done in her?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the annunciation should have been made by an angel to the Blessed Virgin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the angel of annunciation should have appeared to the Virgin in a bodily vision?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Annunciation took place in becoming order?

— Question. 31 – Of The Matter From Which The Saviour’s Body Was Conceived (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the flesh of Christ was derived from Adam?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ took flesh of the seed of David?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s genealogy is suitably traced by the evangelists?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the matter of Christ’s body should have been taken from a woman?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the flesh of Christ was conceived of the Virgin’s purest blood?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s body was in Adam and the other patriarchs, as to something signate?
  • Article. 7 – Whether Christ’s flesh in the patriarchs was infected by sin?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Christ paid tithes in Abraham’s loins?

— Question. 32 – Of The Active Principle In Christ’s Conception (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the accomplishment of Christ’s conception should be attributed to the Holy Ghost?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it should be said that Christ was conceived of [de] the Holy Ghost?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Holy Ghost should be called Christ’s father in respect of His humanity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Blessed Virgin cooperated actively in the conception of Christ’s body?

— Question. 33 – Of The Mode And Order Of Christ’s Conception (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s body was formed in the first instant of its conception?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s body was animated in the first instant of its conception?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s flesh was first of all conceived and afterwards assumed?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s conception was natural?

— Question. 34 – Of The Perfection Of The Child Conceived (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ was sanctified in the first instant of His conception?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ as man had the use of free-will in the first instant of His conception?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ could merit in the first instant of His conception?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ was a perfect comprehensor in the first instant of His conception?

— Question. 35 – Of Christ’s Nativity (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether nativity regards the nature rather than the person?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a temporal nativity should be attributed to Christ?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Blessed Virgin can be called Christ’s Mother in respect of His temporal nativity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the Blessed Virgin should be called the Mother of God?
  • Article. 5 – Whether there are two filiations in Christ?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ was born without His Mother suffering?
  • Article. 7 – Whether Christ should have been born in Bethlehem?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Christ was born at a fitting time?

— Question. 36 – Of The Manifestation Of The Newly Born Christ (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s birth should have been made known to a l l ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s birth should have been made known to some?
  • Article. 3 – Whether those to whom Christ’s birth was made known were suitably chosen?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ Himself should have made His birth know?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ’s birth should have been manifested by means of the angels and the star?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s birth was made known in a becoming order?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the star which appeared to the Magi belonged to the heavenly system?
  • Article. 8 – Whether it was becoming that the Magi should come to adore Christ and pay homage to Him?

— Question. 37 – Of Christ’s Circumcision, And Of The Other Legal Observances Accomplished In Regard To The Child Christ (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ should have been circumcised?
  • Article. 2 – Whether His name was suitably given to Christ?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ was becomingly presented in the temple?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it was fitting that the Mother of God should go to the temple to be purified?

— Question. 38 – Of The Baptism Of John (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that John should baptize?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the baptism of John was from God?
  • Article. 3 – Whether grace was given in the baptism of John?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ alone should have been baptized with the baptism of John?
  • Article. 5 – Whether John’s baptism should have ceased after Christ was baptized?
  • Article. 6 – Whether those who had been baptized with John’s baptism had to be baptized with the baptism of Christ?

— Question. 39 – Of The Baptizing Of Christ (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that Christ should be baptized?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to be baptized with John’s baptism?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ was baptized at a fitting time?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ should have been baptized in the Jordan?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the heavens should have been opened unto Christ at His baptism?
  • Article. 6 – Whether it is fitting to say that when Christ was baptized the Holy Ghost came down on Him in the form of a dove?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the dove in which the Holy Ghost appeared was real?
  • Article. 8 – Whether it was becoming, when Christ was baptized that the Father’s voice should be heard, bearing witness to the Son?

— Question. 40 – Of Christ’s Manner Of Life (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ should have associated with men, or led a solitary life?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was becoming that Christ should lead an austere life in this world?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ should have led a life of poverty in this world?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ conformed His conduct to the Law?

— Question. 41 – Of Christ’s Temptation (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was becoming that Christ should be tempted?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ should have been tempted in the desert?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s temptation should have taken place after His fast?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the mode and order of the temptation were becoming?

— Question. 42 – Of Christ’s Doctrine (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ should have preached not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ should have preached to the Jews without offending them?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ should have taught all things openly?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ should have committed His doctrine to writing?

— Question. 43 – Of The Miracles Worked By Christ, In General (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ should have worked miracles?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ worked miracles by Divine power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ began to work miracles when He changed water into wine at the marriage feast?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the miracles which Christ worked were a sufficient proof of His Godhead?

— Question. 44 – Of (Christ’s) Miracles Considered Specifically (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether those miracles were fitting which Christ worked in spiritual substances?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was fitting that Christ should work miracles in the heavenly bodies?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ worked miracles fittingly on men?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ worked miracles fittingly on irrational creatures?

— Question. 45 – Of Christ’s Transfiguration (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that Christ should be transfigured?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this clarity was the clarity of glory?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the witnesses of the transfiguration were fittingly chosen?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the testimony of the Father’s voice, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son,’ was fittingly added?

— Question. 46 – The Passion Of Christ (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was necessary for Christ to suffer for the deliverance of the human race?
  • Article. 2 – Whether there was any other possible way of human deliverance besides the Passion of Christ?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there was any more suitable way of delivering the human race than by Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ ought to have suffered on the cross?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ endured all suffering?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the pain of Christ’s Passion was greater than all other pains?
  • Article. 7 – Whether Christ suffered in His whole soul?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Christ’s entire soul enjoyed blessed fruition during the Passion?
  • Article. 9 – Whether Christ suffered at a suitable time?
  • Article. 10 – Whether Christ suffered in a suitable place?
  • Article. 11 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to be crucified with thieves?
  • Article. 12 – Whether Christ’s Passion is to be attributed to His Godhead?

— Question. 47 – Of The Efficient Cause Of Christ’s Passion (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ was slain by another or by Himself?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ died out of obedience?
  • Article. 3 – Whether God the Father delivered up Christ to the Passion?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to suffer at the hands of the Gentiles?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ’s persecutors knew who He was?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the sin of those who crucified Christ was most grievous?

— Question. 48 – Of The Efficiency Of Christ’s Passion (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s Passion brought about our salvation by way of merit?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s Passion brought about our salvation by way of atonement?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s Passion operated by way of sacrifice?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s Passion brought about our salvation by way of redemption?
  • Article. 5 – Whether it is proper to Christ to be the Redeemer?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s Passion brought about our salvation efficiently?

— Question. 49 – Of The Effects Of Christ’s Passion (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether we were delivered from sin through Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 2 – Whether we were delivered from the devil’s power through Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether men were freed from the punishment of sin through Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 4 – Whether we were reconciled to God through Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ opened the gate of heaven to us by His Passion?
  • Article. 6 – Whether by His Passion Christ merited to be exalted?

— Question. 50 – Of The Death Of Christ (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting that Christ should die?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Godhead was separated from the flesh when Christ died?
  • Article. 3 – Whether in Christ’s death there was a severance between His Godhead and His soul?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ was a man during the three days of His death?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ’s was identically the same body living and dead?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s death conduced in any way to our salvation?

— Question. 51 – Of Christ’s Burial (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to be buried?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ was buried in a becoming manner?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s body was reduced to dust in the tomb?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ was in the tomb only one day and two nights?

— Question. 52 – Of Christ’s Descent Into Hell (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to descend into hell?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ went down into the hell of the lost?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the whole Christ was in hell?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ made any stay in hell?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ descending into hell delivered the holy Fathers from thence?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ delivered any of the lost from hell?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the children who died in original sin were delivered by Christ?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Christ by His descent into hell delivered souls from purgatory?

— Question. 53 – Of Christ’s Resurrection (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was necessary for Christ to rise again?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to rise again on the third day?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ was the first to rise from the dead?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ was the cause of His own Resurrection?

— Question. 54 – Of The Quality Of Christ Rising Again (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ had a true body after His Resurrection?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s body rose glorified? [*Some editions give this article as the third, following the order of the introduction to the question. But this is evident from the first sentence of the body of A[3] (A[2] in the aforesaid editions), that the order of the Leonine edition is correct.]
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ’s body rose again entire?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ’s body ought to have risen with its scars?

— Question. 55 – Of The Manifestation Of The Resurrection (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s Resurrection ought to have been manifested to all?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it was fitting that the disciples should see Him rise again?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ ought to have lived constantly with His disciples after the Resurrection?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ should have appeared to the disciples ‘in another shape’?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ should have demonstrated the truth of His Resurrection by proofs?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the proofs which Christ made use of manifested sufficiently the truth of His Resurrection?

— Question. 56 – Of The Causality Of Christ’s Resurrection (Two Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ’s Resurrection is the cause of the resurrection of our bodies?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s Resurrection is the cause of the resurrection of souls?

— Question. 57 – Of The Ascension Of Christ (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it was fitting for Christ to ascend into heaven?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ’s Ascension into heaven belonged to Him according to His Divine Nature?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ ascended by His own power?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ ascended above all the heavens?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ’s body ascended above every spiritual creature?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s Ascension is the cause of our salvation?

— Question. 58 – Of Christ’s Sitting At The Right Hand Of The Father (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is fitting that Christ should sit at the right hand of God the Father?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it belongs to Christ as God to sit at the right hand of the Father?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it belongs to Christ as man to sit at the right hand of the Father?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it is proper to Christ to sit at the right hand of the Father?

— Question. 59 – Of Christ’s Judiciary Power (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether judiciary power is to be specially attributed to Christ?
  • Article. 2 – Whether judiciary power belongs to Christ as man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ acquired His judiciary power by His merits?
  • Article. 4 – Whether judiciary power belongs to Christ with respect to all human affairs?
  • Article. 5 – Whether after the Judgment that takes place in the present time, there remains yet another General Judgment?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s judiciary power extends to the angels?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENTS (QQ[60-90])

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENTS IN GENERAL (QQ[60-65])

— Question. 60 – What Is A Sacrament? (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a sacrament is a kind of sign?
  • Article. 2 – Whether every sign of a holy thing is a sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a sacrament is a sign of one thing only?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a sacrament is always something sensible?
  • Article. 5 – Whether determinate things are required for a sacrament?
  • Article. 6 – Whether words are required for the signification of the sacraments?
  • Article. 7 – Whether determinate words are required in the sacraments?
  • Article. 8 – Whether it is lawful to add anything to the words in which the sacramental form consists?

— Question. 61 – Of The Necessity Of The Sacraments (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sacraments are necessary for man’s salvation?
  • Article. 2 – Whether before sin sacraments were necessary to man?
  • Article. 3 – Whether there should have been sacraments after sin, before Christ?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there was need for any sacraments after Christ came?

— Question. 62 – Of The Sacraments’ Principal Effect, Which Is Grace (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the sacraments are the cause of grace?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sacramental grace confers anything in addition to the grace of the virtues and gifts?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the sacraments of the New Law contain grace?
  • Article. 4 – Whether there be in the sacraments a power of causing grace?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the sacraments of the New Law derive their power from Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the sacraments of the Old Law caused grace?

— Question. 63 – Of The Other Effect Of The Sacraments, Which Is A Character (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether a sacrament imprints a character on the soul?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a character is a spiritual power?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the sacramental character is the character of Christ?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the character be subjected in the powers of the soul?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a character can be blotted out from the soul?
  • Article. 6 – Whether a character is imprinted by each sacrament of the New Law?

— Question. 64 – Of The Causes Of The Sacraments (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether God alone, or the minister also, works inwardly unto the sacramental effect?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the sacraments are instituted by God alone?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ as man had the power of producing the inward sacramental effect?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Christ could communicate to ministers the power which He had in the sacraments?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the sacraments can be conferred by evil ministers?
  • Article. 6 – Whether wicked men sin in administering the sacraments?
  • Article. 7 – Whether angels can administer sacraments?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the minister’s intention is required for the validity of a sacrament?
  • Article. 9 – Whether faith is required of necessity in the minister of a sacrament?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the validity of a sacrament requires a good intention in the minister?

— Question. 65 – Of The Number Of The Sacraments (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there should be seven sacraments?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the order of the sacraments, as given above, is becoming?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Eucharist is the greatest of the sacraments?
  • Article. 4 – Whether all the sacraments are necessary for salvation?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM (QQ[66-71])

— Question. 66 – Of The Sacrament Of Baptism (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Baptism is the mere washing?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Baptism was instituted after Christ’s Passion?
  • Article. 3 – Whether water is the proper matter of Baptism?
  • Article. 4 – Whether plain water is necessary for Baptism?
  • Article. 5 – Whether this be a suitable form of Baptism: ‘I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost’?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Baptism can be conferred in the name of Christ?
  • Article. 7 – Whether immersion in water is necessary for Baptism?
  • Article. 8 – Whether trine immersion is essential to Baptism?
  • Article. 9 – Whether Baptism may be reiterated?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the Church observes a suitable rite in baptizing?
  • Article. 11 – Whether three kinds of Baptism are fittingly described — viz. Baptism of Water, of Blood, and of the Spirit?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the Baptism of Blood is the most excellent of these?

— Question. 67 – Of The Ministers By Whom The Sacrament Of Baptism Is Conferred (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether it is part of a deacon’s duty to baptize?
  • Article. 2 – Whether to baptize is part of the priestly office, or proper to that of bishops?
  • Article. 3 – Whether a layman can baptize?
  • Article. 4 – Whether a woman can baptize?
  • Article. 5 – Whether one that is not baptized can confer the sacrament of Baptism?
  • Article. 6 – Whether several can baptize at the same time?
  • Article. 7 – Whether in Baptism it is necessary for someone to raise the baptized from the sacred font?
  • Article. 8 – Whether he who raises anyone from the sacred font is bound to instruct him?

— Question. 68 – Of Those Who Receive Baptism (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all are bound to receive Baptism?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a man can be saved without Baptism?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Baptism should be deferred?
  • Article. 4 – Whether sinners should be baptized?
  • Article. 5 – Whether works of satisfaction should be enjoined on sinners that have been baptized?
  • Article. 6 – Whether sinners who are going to be baptized are bound to confess their sins?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the intention of receiving the sacrament of Baptism is required on the part of the one baptized?
  • Article. 8 – Whether faith is required on the part of the one baptized?
  • Article. 9 – Whether children should be baptized?
  • Article. 10 – Whether children of Jews or other unbelievers be baptized against the will of their parents?
  • Article. 11 – Whether a child can be baptized while yet in its mother’s womb?
  • Article. 12 – Whether madmen and imbeciles should be baptized?

— Question. 69 – Of The Effects Of Baptism (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all sins are taken away by Baptism?
  • Article. 2 – Whether man is freed by Baptism from all debt of punishment due to sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Baptism should take away the penalties of sin that belong to this life?
  • Article. 4 – Whether grace and virtues are bestowed on man by Baptism?
  • Article. 5 – Whether certain acts of the virtues are fittingly set down as effects of Baptism, to wit — incorporation in Christ, enlightenment, and fruitfulness?
  • Article. 6 – Whether children receive grace and virtue in Baptism?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the effect of Baptism is to open the gates of the heavenly kingdom?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Baptism has an equal effect in all?
  • Article. 9 – Whether insincerity hinders the effect of Baptism?
  • Article. 10 – Whether Baptism produces its effect when the insincerity ceases?

— Question. 70 – Of Circumcision (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether circumcision was a preparation for, and a figure of Baptism?
  • Article. 2 – Whether circumcision was instituted in a fitting manner?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the rite of circumcision was fitting?
  • Article. 4 – Whether circumcision bestowed sanctifying grace?

— Question. 71 – Of The Preparations That Accompany Baptism (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether catechism should precede Baptism?
  • Article. 2 – Whether exorcism should precede Baptism?
  • Article. 3 – Whether what is done in the exorcism effects anything, or is a mere sign?
  • Article. 4 – Whether it belongs to a priest to catechize and exorcize the person to be baptized?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION (Q72])

— Question. 72 – Confirmation (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether confirmation is a sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether chrism is a fitting matter for this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether it is essential to this sacrament that the chrism which is its matter be previously consecrated by a bishop?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the proper form of this sacrament is: ‘I sign thee with the sign of the cross,’ etc.?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the sacrament of Confirmation imprints a character?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the character of Confirmation presupposes of necessity, the baptismal character?
  • Article. 7 – Whether sanctifying grace is bestowed in this sacrament?
  • Article. 8 – Whether this sacrament should be given to all?
  • Article. 9 – Whether this sacrament should be given to man on the forehead?
  • Article. 10 – Whether he who is confirmed needs one to stand* for him? [*Literally, ‘to hold him’]
  • Article. 11 – Whether only a bishop can confer this sacrament?
  • Article. 12 – Whether the rite of this sacrament is appropriate?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST (QQ[73-83])

— Question. 73 – Of The Sacrament Of The Eucharist (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the Eucharist is a sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the Eucharist is one sacrament or several?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the Eucharist is necessary for salvation?
  • Article. 4 – Whether this sacrament is suitably called by various names?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the institution of this sacrament was appropriate?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the Paschal Lamb was the chief figure of this sacrament?

— Question. 74 – Of The Matter Of This Sacrament (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the matter of this sacrament is bread and wine?
  • Article. 2 – Whether a determinate quantity of bread and wine is required for the matter of this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether wheaten bread is required for the matter of this sacrament?
  • Article. 4 – Whether this sacrament ought to be made of unleavened bread?
  • Article. 5 – Whether wine of the grape is the proper matter of this sacrament?
  • Article. 6 – Whether water should be mixed with the wine?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the mixing with water is essential to this sacrament?
  • Article. 8 – Whether water should be added in great quantity?

— Question. 75 – Of The Change Of Bread And Wine Into The Body And Blood Of Christ (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the body of Christ be in this sacrament in very truth, or merely as in a figure or sign?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in this sacrament the substance of the bread and wine remains after the consecration?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the substance of the bread or wine is annihilated after the consecration of this sacrament, or dissolved into their original matter?
  • Article. 4 – Whether bread can be converted into the body of Christ?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the accidents of the bread and wine remain in this sacrament after the change?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the substantial form of the bread remains in this sacrament after the consecration?
  • Article. 7 – Whether this change is wrought instantaneously?
  • Article. 8 – Whether this proposition is false: ‘The body of Christ is made out of bread’?

— Question. 76 – Of The Way In Which Christ Is In This Sacrament (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the whole Christ is contained under this sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the whole Christ is contained under each species of this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ is entire under every part of the species of the bread and wine?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the whole dimensive quantity of Christ’s body is in this sacrament?
  • Article. 5 – Whether Christ’s body is in this sacrament as in a place?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Christ’s body is in this sacrament movably?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the body of Christ, as it is in this sacrament, can be seen by any eye, at least by a glorified one?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Christ’s body is truly there when flesh or a child appears miraculously in this sacrament?

— Question. 77 – Of The Accidents Which Remain In This Sacrament (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the accidents remain in this sacrament without a subject?
  • Article. 2 – Whether in this sacrament the dimensive quantity of the bread or wine is the subject of the other accidents?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the species remaining in this sacrament can change external objects?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the sacramental species can be corrupted?
  • Article. 5 – Whether anything can be generated from the sacramental species?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the sacramental species can nourish?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the sacramental species are broken in this sacrament?
  • Article. 8 – Whether any liquid can be mingled with the consecrated wine?

— Question. 78 – Of The Form Of This Sacrament (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether this is the form of this sacrament: ‘This is My body,’ and ‘This is the chalice of My blood’?
  • Article. 2 – Whether this is the proper form for the consecration of the bread: ‘This is My body’?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this is the proper form for the consecration of the wine: ‘This is the chalice of My blood,’ etc.?
  • Article. 4 – Whether in the aforesaid words of the forms there be any created power which causes the consecration?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the aforesaid expressions are true?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the form of the consecration of the bread accomplishes its effect before the form of the consecration of the wine be completed?

— Question. 79 – Of The Effects Of This Sacrament (Eight Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether grace is bestowed through this sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the attaining of glory is an effect of this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the forgiveness of mortal sin is an effect of this sacrament?
  • Article. 4 – Whether venial sins are forgiven through this sacrament?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the entire punishment due to sin is forgiven through this sacrament?
  • Article. 6 – Whether man is preserved by this sacrament from future sins?
  • Article. 7 – Whether this sacrament benefit others besides the recipients?
  • Article. 8 – Whether the effect of this sacrament is hindered by venial sin?

— Question. 80 – Of The Use Or Receiving Of This Sacrament In General (Twelve Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether there are two ways to be distinguished of eating Christ’s body?
  • Article. 2 – Whether it belongs to man alone to eat this sacrament spiritually?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the just man alone may eat Christ sacramentally?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the sinner sins in receiving Christ’s body sacramentally?
  • Article. 5 – Whether to approach this sacrament with consciousness of sin is the gravest of all sins?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the priest ought to deny the body of Christ to the sinner seeking it?
  • Article. 7 – Whether the seminal loss that occurs during sleep hinders anyone from receiving this sacrament?
  • Article. 8 – Whether food or drink taken beforehand hinders the receiving of this sacrament?
  • Article. 9 – Whether those who have not the use of reason ought to receive this sacrament?
  • Article. 10 – Whether it is lawful to receive this sacrament daily?
  • Article. 11 – Whether it is lawful to abstain altogether from communion?
  • Article. 12 – Whether it is lawful to receive the body of Christ without the blood?

— Question. 81 – Of The Use Which Christ Made Of This Sacrament At Its Institution (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ received His own body and blood?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Christ gave His body to Judas?
  • Article. 3 – Whether Christ received and gave to the disciples His impassible body?
  • Article. 4 – Whether, if this sacrament had been reserved in a pyx, or consecrated at the moment of Christ’s death by one of the apostles, Christ Himself would have died there?

— Question. 82 – Of The Minister Of This Sacrament (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the consecration of this sacrament belongs to a priest alone?
  • Article. 2 – Whether several priests can consecrate one and the same host?
  • Article. 3 – Whether dispensing of this sacrament belongs to a priest alone?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the priest who consecrates is bound to receive this sacrament?
  • Article. 5 – Whether a wicked priest can consecrate the Eucharist?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the mass of a sinful priest is of less worth than the mass of a good priest?
  • Article. 7 – Whether heretics, schismatics, and excommunicated persons can consecrate?
  • Article. 8 – Whether a degraded priest can consecrate this sacrament?
  • Article. 9 – Whether it is permissible to receive communion from heretical, excommunicate, or sinful priests, and to hear mass said by them?
  • Article. 10 – Whether it is lawful for a priest to refrain entirely from consecrating the Eucharist?

— Question. 83 – Of The Rite Of This Sacrament (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Christ is sacrificed in this sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether the time for celebrating this mystery has been properly determined?
  • Article. 3 – Whether this sacrament ought to be celebrated in a house and with sacred vessels?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the words spoken in this sacrament are properly framed?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the actions performed in celebrating this sacrament are becoming?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the defects occurring during the celebration of this sacrament can be sufficiently met by observing the Church’s statutes?

TREATISE ON THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE (QQ[84-90])

— Question. 84 – Of The Sacrament Of Penance (Ten Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Penance is a sacrament?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sins are the proper matter of this sacrament?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the form of this sacrament is: ‘I absolve thee’?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the imposition of the priest’s hands is necessary for this sacrament?
  • Article. 5 – Whether this sacrament is necessary for salvation?
  • Article. 6 – Whether Penance is a second plank after shipwreck?
  • Article. 7 – Whether this sacrament was suitably instituted in the New Law?
  • Article. 8 – Whether Penance should last till the end of life?
  • Article. 9 – Whether Penance can be continuous?
  • Article. 10 – Whether the sacrament of Penance may be repeated?

— Question. 85 – Of Penance As A Virtue (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Penance is a virtue?
  • Article. 2 – Whether Penance is a special virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the virtue of penance is a species of justice?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the will is properly the subject of penance?
  • Article. 5 – Whether penance originates from fear?
  • Article. 6 – Whether penance is the first of the virtues?

— Question. 86 – Of The Effect Of Penance, As Regards The Pardon Of Mortal Sin (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether all sins are taken away by Penance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sin can be pardoned without Penance?
  • Article. 3 – Whether by Penance one sin can be pardoned without another?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the debt of punishment remains after the guilt has been forgiven through Penance?
  • Article. 5 – Whether the remnants of sin are removed when a mortal sin is forgiven?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the forgiveness of guilt is an effect of Penance?

— Question. 87 – Of The Remission Of Venial Sin (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether venial sin can be forgiven without Penance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether infusion of grace is necessary for the remission of venial sins?
  • Article. 3 – Whether venial sins are removed by the sprinkling of holy water and the like?
  • Article. 4 – Whether venial sin can be taken away without mortal sin?

— Question. 88 – Of The Return Of Sins Which Have Been Taken Away By Penance (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether sins once forgiven return through a subsequent sin?
  • Article. 2 – Whether sins that have been forgiven, return through ingratitude which is shown especially in four kinds of sin?
  • Article. 3 – Whether the debt of punishment that arises through ingratitude in respect of a subsequent sin is as great as that of the sins previously pardoned?
  • Article. 4 – Whether the ingratitude whereby a subsequent sin causes the return of previous sins, is a special sin?

— Question. 89 – Of The Recovery Of Virtue By Means Of Penance (Six Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether the virtues are restored through Penance?
  • Article. 2 – Whether, after Penance, man rises again to equal virtue?
  • Article. 3 – Whether, by Penance, man is restored to his former dignity?
  • Article. 4 – Whether virtuous deeds done in charity can be deadened?
  • Article. 5 – Whether deeds deadened by sin, are revived by Penance?
  • Article. 6 – Whether the effect of subsequent Penance is to quicken even dead works?

— Question. 90 – Of The Parts Of Penance, In General (Four Articles)

  • Article. 1 – Whether Penance should be assigned any parts?
  • Article. 2 – Whether contrition, confession, and satisfaction are fittingly assigned as parts of Penance?
  • Article. 3 – Whether these three are integral parts of Penance?
  • Article. 4 – Whether Penance is fittingly divided into penance before Baptism, penance for mortal sins, and penance for venial sins?