Thần Học Luân Lý

Thần Học Luân Lý – Lược dịch từ cuốn The Way of the Lord Jesus (Con đường Chúa Giê-su – 2009) của nhà thần học Công Giáo người Mỹ gốc Pháp – Germain Grisez (1929-2018).


QUYỂN I. CÁC NGUYÊN TẮC LUÂN LÝ KI-TÔ GIÁO

Hướng dẫn sử dụng và Lời nói đầu
Dẫn nhập
Chương 1. Giới thiệu về thần học luân lý và cuốn sách này
Câu hỏi A. Thần học là gì?
Câu hỏi B. Thần học luân lý là gì?
Câu hỏi C. Vai trò của Giáo huấn trong phương pháp của thần học luân lý là gì?
Câu hỏi D. Tại sao cần có sự đổi mới trong thần học luân lý?
Câu hỏi E. Công đồng Vaticanô II nói gì về sự đổi mới trong thần học luân lý?
Câu hỏi F. Nỗ lực trong thần học luân lý ngày nay có những thiếu sót nào?
Câu hỏi G. Đâu là vần đề nền tảng ẩn dưới sự phát triển không thỏa đáng trong thần học luân lý?
Câu hỏi H. Khi nào một luận thuyết trong nguyên tắc luân lý Ki-tô Giáo đặt ra cơ sơ cần đổi mới trong thần học luân lý?
Câu hỏi I. Những khó khăn nào đang chờ đợi những người học thần học luân lý qua cuốn sách này?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Tầm quan trọng của môn học này
Phụ lục 2. Pluralism, theological synthesis, and the present work
Phụ lục 3. Renewal in moral theology and the present crisis in the Church
Phụ lục 4. Theological method and science
Phụ lục 5. The appropriate method for theology. dialectic
Phụ lục 6. Modern philosophies and theology
Chương 2. Free Choice, Self-Determination, Community, and Character
Câu hỏi A. In what sense is free choice a principle of morality?
Câu hỏi B. Can human persons make free choices?
Câu hỏi C. How is free choice distinguished from other realities called “freedom”?
Câu hỏi D. How does a person experience free choice?
Câu hỏi E. What are the essence and the most important properties of free choice?
Câu hỏi F. In what ways can free choices be social or communal?
Câu hỏi G. How are an individual’s choices related to one another?
Câu hỏi H. How are choices constitutive of one’s self and of community?
Câu hỏi I. How are the virtues and vices which make up character related to free choices?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The Fathers of the Church on free choice
Phụ lục 2. Further clarifications of the experience of choice
Phụ lục 3. The compatibility of God’s causality with free choice
Phụ lục 4. Only believers accept the reality of free choice
Chương 3. Conscience. Knowledge of Moral Truth
Câu hỏi A. What are the different senses of the word “conscience”?
Câu hỏi B. What is conscience according to the teaching of the Church?
Câu hỏi C. What is one’s moral responsibility for errors of conscience?
Câu hỏi D. What is the ideal way to make a judgment of conscience?
Câu hỏi E. What is meant by “formation of conscience”?
Câu hỏi F. How can the Church’s teaching form conscience from within?
Câu hỏi G. How is conscience misunderstood in the modern world?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Three levels in the development of conscience
Phụ lục 2. How conscience can make blameless mistakes
Phụ lục 3. Failures of conscience through some fault
Chương 4. Some Mistaken Theories of Moral Principles
Câu hỏi A. Are judgments of conscience mere expressions of moral feelings?
Câu hỏi B. Are judgments of conscience derivable from any general principle?
Câu hỏi C. Are moral norms in effect only if they are validated by personal choices?
Câu hỏi D. Are moral principles established by God’s arbitrary choice?
Câu hỏi E. Are moral principles the requirements for the functioning of particular societies?
Câu hỏi F. Are moral principles laws of human nature?
Câu hỏi G. How does the preceding critique of scholastic natural-law theory help to explain the inadequacy of classical moral theology?
Câu hỏi H. How do this chapter’s critical reflections contribute to a more adequate theory of moral principles?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. Immanuel Kant’s theory of moral principles
Chương 5. The Goods Which Fulfill Persons
Câu hỏi A. What is the central meaning of “good” and “bad”?
Câu hỏi B. How are sensible goods and bads distinct from intelligible goods and bads?
Câu hỏi C. How do mistaken views of the good and the bad lead to false accounts of what is good for human persons?
Câu hỏi D. What are the goods which fulfill human persons?
Câu hỏi E. What are the principal inadequate theories of the human good as a whole?
Câu hỏi F. What is St. Augustine’s theory of the human good as a whole?
Câu hỏi G. What does it mean to say without qualification that a person “is good”?
Câu hỏi H. How are existential and substantive goods related to one another?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Vatican II’s indication of the human goods
Phụ lục 2. The reflexive or existential goods explained more fully
Phụ lục 3. Substantive goods explained more fully
Phụ lục 4. Bodily life a basic human good
Chương 6. Critique of the Proportionalist Method of Moral Judgment
Câu hỏi A. What is the proportionalist method of moral judgment?
Câu hỏi B. What account of human goods does proportionalism presuppose?
Câu hỏi C. Why is proportionalism plausible?
Câu hỏi D. Why do these considerations, which render proportionalism plausible, fail to constitute sound arguments in its favor?
Câu hỏi E. Do practical experience and language provide evidence for proportionalism?
Câu hỏi F. Why is proportionalism unacceptable as a theory of moral judgment?
Câu hỏi G. How does proportionalism misconstrue the nature of morality?
Câu hỏi H. Do proportionalists respond successfully to criticism?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. A restricted theory of proportionate reason
Chương 7. Natural Law and the Fundamental Principles of Morality
Câu hỏi A. What does “natural law” mean in Catholic teaching?
Câu hỏi B. Are natural law and revelation completely separate sources of moral guidance?
Câu hỏi C. What is the first principle of practical reasoning?
Câu hỏi D. What are the general determinations of the first principle of practical reasoning?
Câu hỏi E. What is the function of the first principle of morality?
Câu hỏi F. How is the first principle of morality to be formulated?
Câu hỏi G. What are the primary specifications of the first principle of morality?
Câu hỏi H. How are the modes of responsibility related to the virtues?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. How one knows the basic human goods
Phụ lục 2. Further clarification of the first moral principle
Phụ lục 3. Natural law, the magisterium, and dissenting theologians
Chương 8. The Modes of Responsibility Which Specify the First Principle
Câu hỏi A. What is the first mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi B. What is the second mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi C. What is the third mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi D. What is the fourth mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi E. What is the fifth mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi F. What is the sixth mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi G. What is the seventh mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi H. What is the eighth mode of responsibility?
Câu hỏi I. How do the eight modes of responsibility shape the life of a good person toward integral human fulfillment?
Tóm lược
Chương 9. The Voluntary. What Moral Norms Bear Upon
Câu hỏi A. Why is it necessary to study various sorts of voluntariness?
Câu hỏi B. Which sorts of voluntariness are presupposed by choice?
Câu hỏi C. How are choices related to what one chooses?
Câu hỏi D. How are choices related to human goods?
Câu hỏi E. What are the special characteristics of commitments?
Câu hỏi F. What is the difference between the voluntariness in choosing and in accepting foreseen consequences distinct from what is chosen?
Câu hỏi G. What varieties of voluntariness presuppose choice but are distinct from any act of choice?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Why human acts must be described so precisely
Phụ lục 2. The moral significance of spontaneous willing
Phụ lục 3. The voluntary in cause
Chương 10. From Modes of Responsibility to Moral Norms
Câu hỏi A. Do all the modes of responsibility have normative force in the same way?
Câu hỏi B. How are specific moral norms derived from the modes of responsibility?
Câu hỏi C. Why are some specific moral norms absolute and others nonabsolute?
Câu hỏi D. Is the method of deriving specific moral norms adequate for conclusive criticism of every judgment of conscience?
Câu hỏi E. How are rights and duties derived from the modes of responsibility?
Câu hỏi F. Are communities governed by moral norms other than those which govern individuals?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. St. Thomas on the nonabsoluteness of norms
Phụ lục 2. Limitations of the language of rights
Phụ lục 3. The notion of the “common good”
Chương 11. The Moral Authority of Law
Câu hỏi A. What is meant by “authority”?
Câu hỏi B. How can people be morally obliged to act on decisions they do not participate in making?
Câu hỏi C. What is the basis of one’s moral obligation to obey divine precepts?
Câu hỏi D. What distinctions among the laws of civil societies are necessary for moral reflection?
Câu hỏi E. To what extent does one have a moral obligation to obey human laws which are purely regulative?
Câu hỏi F. What is the difference between the Church’s moral teaching and her law?
Câu hỏi G. To what extent do Catholics have a moral obligation to obey the Church’s law?
Tóm lược
Chương 12. Moral Judgment in Problematic Situations
Câu hỏi A. What should be the objective of reflection by those with doubts of conscience?
Câu hỏi B. How can one resolve doubts of conscience which arise because of uncertainty about relevant facts?
Câu hỏi C. How can one resolve doubts of conscience which arise because of uncertainty about relevant norms?
Câu hỏi D. How is the position taken in the preceding question related to probabilism?
Câu hỏi E. How can one resolve a doubt of conscience which arises from the appearance of conflicting responsibilities?
Câu hỏi F. How can one resolve a doubt of conscience which arises when one seems obliged to do an act of a kind which is always wrong?
Câu hỏi G. How can one resolve a doubt of conscience concerning the permissibility of cooperating with someone who is doing something wrong?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Probabilism considered in its context
Phụ lục 2. Legalism, dissent, and the current abuses of probabilism
Phụ lục 3. The principle of double effect
Chương 13. What Sin Is and What It Is Not
Câu hỏi A. What does Scripture say about sin?
Câu hỏi B. What is sin?
Câu hỏi C. In what sense is sin an offense against God?
Câu hỏi D. How can a person choose to do what is morally evil?
Câu hỏi E. In what sense does sin extend beyond individual sinners?
Câu hỏi F. How do unbelievers try to account for sin?
Câu hỏi G. How should Christians evaluate deterministic accounts of sin?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Misunderstandings of sin to be avoided
Phụ lục 2. Emphases on self and law to be avoided
Chương 14. Sin of Adam and Sins of Men and Women
Câu hỏi A. For what aspects of the human condition does original sin account?
Câu hỏi B. What does the Church teach about original sin?
Câu hỏi C. Are current attempts to revise the Church’s teaching defensible?
Câu hỏi D. Does the theory of evolution present a serious difficulty for the doctrine of original sin?
Câu hỏi E. What does faith teach about the initial human condition?
Câu hỏi F. How might the first humans have sinned?
Câu hỏi G. What were the consequences of the first sin?
Câu hỏi H. How could death be a consequence of sin?
Câu hỏi I. How can those who come after the first humans inherit original sin?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. St. Paul and Trent on original sin
Phụ lục 2. Responses to some objections
Chương 15. Distinctions among Sins; Sins of Thought
Câu hỏi A. Are all sins equally serious?
Câu hỏi B. What are the theological sources of the distinction between mortal and venial sin?
Câu hỏi C. What is a mortal sin?
Câu hỏi D. How can an individual become guilty of a mortal sin by involvement in a group which acts in a seriously wrong way?
Câu hỏi E. How important to Christian morality are sins of thought?
Câu hỏi F. At what point does mortal sin begin in sins of thought?
Câu hỏi G. What are the most common kinds of sins of thought?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Mortal sin and the modes of voluntariness
Phụ lục 2. The distinction of sins according to species and number
Chương 16. The Distinction between Grave and Light Matter
Câu hỏi A. What problem is raised by the distinction between grave and light matter?
Câu hỏi B. What are the current theories of fundamental option?
Câu hỏi C. How do current theories of fundamental option try to account for the distinction between grave and light matter?
Câu hỏi D. Why do such theories fail to account for the distinction between grave and light matter?
Câu hỏi E. What other reasons tell against current theories of fundamental option?
Câu hỏi F. How does St. Thomas explain the distinction between grave and light matter?
Câu hỏi G. How can some kinds of morally evil acts be compatible with charity?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Flick and Alszeghy on fundamental commitment
Phụ lục 2. Arguments for fundamental freedom
Chương 17. Sufficient Reflection; Sins of Weakness
Câu hỏi A. What is needed for sufficient reflection?
Câu hỏi B. How can the will be weakened by strong emotion?
Câu hỏi C. What kinds of sins of weakness are there?
Câu hỏi D. What three conditions define quasi-compulsive sin of weakness?
Câu hỏi E. Are all sins of weakness which meet the usual conditions for mortal sin in fact mortal sins?
Câu hỏi F. Can the quasi-compulsive sinner through weakness simply stop sinning?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Degrees of awareness in sufficient reflection
Phụ lục 2. The gravity of quasi-compulsive sins of weakness
Chương 18. The Way of Sin to Death
Câu hỏi A. What is imperfection?
Câu hỏi B. What are the sources of temptation?
Câu hỏi C. How do venial sins lead to mortal sins?
Câu hỏi D. What are the seven capital sins?
Câu hỏi E. How does persistence in mortal sin lead to final impenitence?
Câu hỏi F. Is there a final option at the moment of death?
Câu hỏi G. Do impenitent sinners end in hell?
Câu hỏi H. In what does hell consist?
Câu hỏi I. Does God cause anyone to go to hell?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The reality and limited role of the Devil
Phụ lục 2. Covetousness and pride as roots of all sin
Chương 19. Fulfillment in Jesus and Human Fulfillment
Câu hỏi A. What is the relationship between human fulfillment and God’s purpose in creating?
Câu hỏi B. How is the fullness of the Lord Jesus related to God’s purpose in creating?
Câu hỏi C. How can human persons be united with Jesus in order to find fulfillment in him?
Câu hỏi D. What is the perfection of our sharing in the divine life of Jesus?
Câu hỏi E. What is the perfection of our bodily union with Jesus?
Câu hỏi F. What is the perfection of our cooperation with the human acts of Jesus?
Câu hỏi G. How does the human contribution to the fullness of Jesus constitute a gift to God?
Câu hỏi H. How is the task of Christian life related to the fullness of Jesus?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. Questions about bodily unity with Jesus and resurrection
Chương 20. The Relationship between God and Sinful Humankind
Câu hỏi A. What is divine revelation?
Câu hỏi B. What is it to have faith in a human person?
Câu hỏi C. What is it to have faith in God?
Câu hỏi D. How does a person make an act of faith as a personal commitment?
Câu hỏi E. In what sense is the act of faith a gift of God?
Câu hỏi F. How does human sin affect the relationship of revelation and faith?
Câu hỏi G. Why does God make humans cooperators in his redemptive work?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The conditions for sound interpretation in Catholic theology
Phụ lục 2. The unalterability of the truths of Catholic faith
Chương 21. God’s Redemptive Work. Covenant and Incarnation
Câu hỏi A. What are the constant characteristics of God’s redeeming work?
Câu hỏi B. How is the covenant relationship to be understood?
Câu hỏi C. How does the covenant relationship deepen and transform morality?
Câu hỏi D. How does the new covenant perfect the old?
Câu hỏi E. How are the human and the divine united in Jesus?
Câu hỏi F. How are the divine and human aspects of Jesus’ actions related?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. How the Incarnation reveals the personal life of God
Phụ lục 2. The personal unity of the life of the Word Incarnate
Chương 22. God’s Redemptive Work in Jesus’ Human Life
Câu hỏi A. Does Jesus have a fundamental option?
Câu hỏi B. What is Jesus’ basic commitment?
Câu hỏi C. What is Jesus’ personal vocation?
Câu hỏi D. By what types of acts does Jesus carry out his personal vocation?
Câu hỏi E. What is the main issue in Jesus’ conflict with the leaders?
Câu hỏi F. How does it come about that Jesus freely accepts death?
Câu hỏi G. How is Jesus’ acceptance of death redemptive?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The use of the Gospels as sources
Phụ lục 2. Further aspects and other theories of redemption
Chương 23. God’s Redemptive Work in the Lives of Christians
Câu hỏi A. How do fallen men and women enter into Jesus’ redemptive act by making faith in him their fundamental option?
Câu hỏi B. How are Christians united with Jesus’ redemptive act in the Mass?
Câu hỏi C. What does it mean to follow the way of the Lord Jesus?
Câu hỏi D. How do Christians carry out their common vocation to follow Jesus?
Câu hỏi E. Why does every Christian have a unique personal vocation?
Câu hỏi F. Why should Christians follow the same moral standards in carrying out their different personal vocations?
Câu hỏi G. Why must Catholics conform their consciences to the teaching of the Church?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The liturgical character of Christian moral life
Phụ lục 2. The human authenticity of the faithful Catholic conscience
Chương 24. Christians. Human Children of God
Câu hỏi A. What is human love?
Câu hỏi B. What is the relationship between the Trinitarian reality of God and his self-communication to created persons?
Câu hỏi C. How intimate a communion does God establish with us?
Câu hỏi D. How does the act of faith link the Christian as a human person with his or her share in the divine nature?
Câu hỏi E. Can divine goodness and human goods be alternatives for choice?
Câu hỏi F. How are the divine and the human united in the Christian?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The Trinity of divine persons as love
Phụ lục 2. The mystery of the Christian’s share in divine life
Phụ lục 3. Other accounts of Christian love
Chương 25. Christian Love as the Principle of Christian Life
Câu hỏi A. Is Christian love a human act?
Câu hỏi B. Why does Christian love require moral goodness?
Câu hỏi C. Are the moral requirements of Christian love expressed by the commands to love God and neighbor?
Câu hỏi D. What does Christian love add to the love commands of the Old Testament?
Câu hỏi E. Are there specific norms knowable only by faith whose fulfillment is strictly required by Christian love?
Câu hỏi F. Must the modes of responsibility be transformed so that all one does might contribute to a suitable response to God’s gift of Christian love?
Câu hỏi G. Does the new law surpass the old law by giving Christians something besides better guidance for living?
Câu hỏi H. In what senses can Christian love be called “grace”?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The Christian lives by the Spirit
Phụ lục 2. The humanity of Jesus and the natural law
Phụ lục 3. Self-affirmation, self-denial, and charity
Phụ lục 4. Charity as one of three theological virtues
Chương 26. Modes of Christian Response
Câu hỏi A. How are the modes of Christian response related to the Beatitudes?
Câu hỏi B. How are the modes of Christian response related to the Christian moral virtues?
Câu hỏi C. How are the modes of Christian response related to the gifts of the Holy Spirit?
Câu hỏi D. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the first Beatitude. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5.3)?
Câu hỏi E. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the second (or third) Beatitude. “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth” (Mt 5.5)?
Câu hỏi F. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the third (or second) Beatitude. “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted” (Mt 5.4)?
Câu hỏi G. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the fourth Beatitude. “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied” (Mt 5.6)?
Câu hỏi H. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the fifth Beatitude. “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy” (Mt 5.7)?
Câu hỏi I. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the sixth Beatitude. “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Mt 5.8)?
Câu hỏi J. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the seventh Beatitude. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God” (Mt 5.9)?
Câu hỏi K. What mode of Christian response corresponds to the eighth Beatitude. “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5.10)?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. The upright who have not heard the gospel
Chương 27. Life Formed by the Modes of Christian Response
Câu hỏi A. What is the underlying principle which unifies the modes of Christian response?
Câu hỏi B. How do the modes of Christian response shape the life of each Christian following Jesus?
Câu hỏi C. How do the Christian modes of response lead to specific Christian norms?
Câu hỏi D. How does each Christian’s conscience function in forming his or her unique life?
Câu hỏi E. Does the Christian conscience demand perfection?
Câu hỏi F. To what extent are Christians obliged to forgo their rights?
Câu hỏi G. How can Christian norms require preference for certain persons?
Câu hỏi H. How can a conscientious Christian make any vocational commitment other than to follow the counsels of perfection?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Jesus as Christian moral principle. unique but intelligible
Phụ lục 2. Life according to the counsels of perfection
Phụ lục 3. The present theology and received Catholic teaching
Chương 28. The Practicability of Christian Morality
Câu hỏi A. In what sense do the Christian modes of response articulate ideals?
Câu hỏi B. Is it possible to fulfill the norms of Christian morality?
Câu hỏi C. Does the fulfillment of the norms of Christian morality involve a process of growth toward perfection?
Câu hỏi D. Why is growth toward Christian perfection often stunted?
Câu hỏi E. How does commitment to one’s personal vocation promote growth toward perfection?
Câu hỏi F. How can the requirement that Christians live according to the modes of Christian response escape rigorism?
Câu hỏi G. Why is hope indispensable to living a Christian life?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. Christian morality and social responsibility
Chương 29. Prayer. The Fundamental Category of Christian Action
Câu hỏi A. What is prayer?
Câu hỏi B. Why is prayer necessary?
Câu hỏi C. How does the Christian’s life of prayer depend on the Holy Spirit?
Câu hỏi D. What characteristics should mark Christian prayer?
Câu hỏi E. Are prayers always answered?
Câu hỏi F. Why should liturgical prayer be the center of each Christian’s prayer life?
Câu hỏi G. What is the role of sacramentals and devotions in Christian life?
Câu hỏi H. Why is personal prayer necessary in addition to liturgical prayer?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The experience of communion with the Spirit
Phụ lục 2. Sacred Scripture in the liturgy
Phụ lục 3. Not every Christian is called to contemplative prayer
Chương 30. Sacraments in General and Baptism
Câu hỏi A. How are the sacraments related to God’s redemptive work in Jesus and in Christians?
Câu hỏi B. Why are the sacraments Christian moral principles?
Câu hỏi C. What is the relationship between the sacraments as acts and as signs?
Câu hỏi D. What is God’s part in sacramental cooperation?
Câu hỏi E. What is the human action of our glorified Lord in the sacraments?
Câu hỏi F. What is the Church’s role in the sacraments?
Câu hỏi G. What is the recipient’s role in sacramental cooperation?
Câu hỏi H. Why is baptism the basic sacrament?
Câu hỏi I. What are the implications of baptism for Christian moral life?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The symbolic aspect of the sacraments
Phụ lục 2. The one Church and those who do not hear the gospel
Chương 31. Confirmation, the Apostolate, and Personal Vocation
Câu hỏi A. How is confirmation a principle of Christian life?
Câu hỏi B. In what sense is confirmation the sacrament of the apostolate?
Câu hỏi C. How are confirmation, apostolate, and personal vocation related to one another?
Câu hỏi D. Why is strength the special grace of the sacrament of confirmation?
Câu hỏi E. How can one discern one’s personal vocation?
Câu hỏi F. What sorts of prayer are appropriate to Christian life as apostolate?
Câu hỏi G. What is the role of friendship with Mary and the other saints in the apostolic life of every Christian?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The meaning of confirmation indicated in the new rite
Phụ lục 2. Scriptural indications about the sacrament of confirmation
Chương 32. Penance, Anointing, and the Life of Self‑Denial
Câu hỏi A. Why is the sacrament of penance necessary?
Câu hỏi B. What is the contrition required for the sacrament of penance?
Câu hỏi C. What does it mean to do penance for sin?
Câu hỏi D. How can the sacrament of penance be a principle of the whole of a Christian’s life?
Câu hỏi E. How does avoiding the occasions of sin contribute to the penitential ordering of Christian life?
Câu hỏi F. How does reparation for sin contribute to the penitential ordering of Christian life?
Câu hỏi G. What are the primary forms of penance?
Câu hỏi H. How does the sacrament of anointing of the sick complete penance?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The distinction between restitution and penance
Phụ lục 2. Penance, indulgences, purgatory, and temporal punishment
Chương 33. Eucharistic Life as Fulfillment in the Lord Jesus
Câu hỏi A. How is the Eucharist both complex and simple?
Câu hỏi B. How is sharing in the Eucharist sharing in the sacrifice of Jesus?
Câu hỏi C. How is the Eucharist spiritual food for Christians?
Câu hỏi D. How does the Eucharist transform Christian moral life?
Câu hỏi E. How is the Eucharist a pledge of glory?
Câu hỏi F. How does the Eucharist constitute the Church?
Câu hỏi G. How does the Liturgy of the Hours extend the Eucharist throughout the day?
Câu hỏi H. How does the sacrament of matrimony extend the Eucharist into the basic personal relationships of most Christians?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục. The bodily presence of Jesus in the Eucharist
Chương 34. Christian Life Animated with Hope of Everlasting Life
Câu hỏi A. What difficulties are generated by the view that Christian life in this world is only a means to be used to reach heaven?
Câu hỏi B. What are the implications of the view that human fulfillment will be found exclusively in this world?
Câu hỏi C. What are the implications of the view that heaven will inevitably follow this life, but that the positive meaning of this life is found entirely within it?
Câu hỏi D. How does the doctrine of fulfillment in the Lord Jesus make clear the incompleteness of the preceding views?
Câu hỏi E. How is Christian life in this age both continuous with and discontinuous from everlasting life?
Câu hỏi F. Why is the living of Christian life in this age necessary for the realization of God’s salvific purpose?
Câu hỏi G. What attitude should Christians have toward the realization of human goods in this life?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Christian humanism and cultural progress in history
Phụ lục 2. Fleshly reality lasts and its givenness is transcended
Chương 35. The Truth of Christ Lives in His Church
Câu hỏi A. What is the origin of the infallibility of the Church?
Câu hỏi B. What in Scripture must be accepted as certainly true?
Câu hỏi C. What is meant by the “magisterium” of the Church?
Câu hỏi D. Under what conditions, apart from solemn definitions, does the Church teach infallibly?
Câu hỏi E. Does the Church infallibly teach some absolute moral norms?
Câu hỏi F. Why must one give religious assent to teachings not infallibly proposed?
Câu hỏi G. What are the limits of the obligation of religious assent?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. The apostle and the handing on of Christian revelation
Phụ lục 2. A critique of some views on infallibility in general
Phụ lục 3. A critique of some views on infallibility in morals
Phụ lục 4. Moral teaching in the New Testament
Chương 36. A Critical Examination of Radical Theological Dissent
Câu hỏi A. Does the Church’s teaching itself provide some justification for radical theological dissent?
Câu hỏi B. Did those who engaged in radical theological dissent carefully consider the possible infallibility of the norms they denied?
Câu hỏi C. What other grounds were proposed to support the legitimacy of radical theological dissent?
Câu hỏi D. How did dissenting theologians try to buttress their claim to an authority superior to that of the magisterium?
Câu hỏi E. Could morality be considered outside the field of authority proper to the magisterium?
Câu hỏi F. Could radical theological dissent be construed as mere reformulation of traditional moral teaching?
Câu hỏi G. Could radical theological dissent be construed as legitimate doctrinal development in the moral domain?
Câu hỏi H. Why did some wish to change Catholic teaching?
Tóm lược
Phụ lục 1. Some examples of alleged errors in Catholic teaching
Phụ lục 2. Authentic development in moral teaching
Phụ lục 3. How academic theology became secularized
Phụ lục 4. Causes of the successes of theological dissent
Phụ lục 5. An afterword on pastoral responsibility and solidarity

QUYỂN II. SỐNG ĐỜI KI-TÔ HỮU

Preface and User’s Guide
Chương 1. Faith, Religious Assent, and Reverence for God
Prologue to the chapter
A. What theological view of faith does this chapter presuppose?
B. Why reflect on the responsibility to keep one’s faith?
C. What reasons point to the credibility of catholic faith?
D. What about the “logical” case against faith?
E. What about the practical challenges to faith?
F. What is the only unanswerable reason for unbelief?
G. Why is it good to be a catholic Christian?
H. Which truths should one accept with Catholic faith?
I. Should one assent to teachings which are not of faith?
J. How should one cultivate and perfect one’s faith?
K. How can one properly honor God and show reverence?
Chương 2. Hope, Apostolate, and Personal Vocation
A. What are the essential characteristics of Christian hope in God?
B. How should one fulfill one’s responsibility to hope?
C. What is the mission of the Church?
D. How are Catholics’ apostolic responsibilities the same and diverse?
E. What are one’s responsibilities in regard to personal vocation?
Chương 3. Charity, the Eucharist, and Church Membership
A. How can one fulfill one’s responsibility to love God?
B. What is one’s chief responsibility in regard to worship?
C. What other forms of worship are appropriate for Catholics?
D. How should one foster the Church’s unity, peace, and vitality?
Chương 4. Repentance, the Sacrament of Penance, and the Struggle against Sin
Prologue to the chapter
A. How do responsibilities in this sphere fit into Christian life?
B. What are one’s responsibilities to do penitential works?
C. How should one use the sacrament of penance?
D. What other means are to be used to overcome sin and its effects?
E. What are one’s responsibilities for others’ moral welfare?
F. What should Christians do to prepare for death?
Chương 5. Seeking Moral Truth. Moral Judgment and Problem Solving
A. Why consider responsibilities with respect to moral truth?
B. What are the general norms for seeking moral truth?
C. How can the moral norms needed for a Christian life be acquired?
D. How can problems about norms and their application be solved?
E. How can doubts about facts be resolved?
F. When and how should better options be sought?
G. When and how should emotions that bear on choices be criticized?
H. How can partiality be recognized?
I. How should residual doubt and moral perplexity be dealt with?
J. How should one discern between or among good options?
K. How should one resolve conflicts of duties?
L. What are one’s responsibilities when deliberating with others?
M. What are the responsibilities of moral advisers?
N. Does this chapter provide support for proportionalism?
Chương 6. Love, Justice, Mercy, and Social Responsibility
A. What is the primary Christian responsibility toward others?
B. What is justice?
C. How does community generate responsibilities toward others?
D. Does the common good take precedence over the good of each person?
E. How does the social situation shape one’s responsibilities?
F. How are justice and mercy related in practice?
G. How does Christian love shape social responsibility?
Chương 7. Equal Dignity, Communication, Interpersonal Relationships, and Restitution
A. How is equal dignity consistent with diversity in social status?
B. What are one’s responsibilities in communicating?
C. What are one’s responsibilities with respect to promises and secrets?
D. What are one’s responsibilities in voluntary associations and friendships?
E. How should one exercise authority and practice obedience?
F. When should one cooperate with those who are doing wrong?
G. What are people’s responsibilities with regard to restitution?
Chương 8. Life, Health, and Bodily Inviolability
A. Why should human life always be treated with reverence?
B. Is it always gravely wrong to intend to kill the innocent?
C. When is it wrong to accept or risk death as a side effect?
D. Is abortion always the wrongful killing of a person?
E. Why is contraception always wrong?
F. What are one’s responsibilities with respect to health?
G. What other responsibilities are there toward persons as bodily?
Chương 9. Marriage, Sexual Acts, and Family Life
A. Why is every marriage a permanent and exclusive union?
B. Is this theology of marriage consistent with the Church’s practice?
C. What difference does the sacrament make to marriage?
D. What are the responsibilities of spouses toward each other?
E. What sexual acts are appropriate for Christians?
F. What are the responsibilities of spouses in regard to children?
G. What are the other responsibilities of family life?
H. What should spouses do if their marriage is troubled?
I. What are the responsibilities of those preparing for marriage?
Chương 10. Work, Subhuman Realities, and Property
Prologue to the chapter
A. What are one’s responsibilities with respect to work?
B. How should people relate to subpersonal creation?
C. How should people treat nonrational animals?
D. What are the foundations of moral norms about property?
E. What are people’s responsibilities with respect to their own property?
F. What are one’s responsibilities as to others’ property?
G. What are one’s responsibilities in transactions?
Chương 11. Patriotism, Politics, and Citizenship
A. What are one’s responsibilities with respect to patriotism?
B. Why should one be a dutiful and law-abiding citizen?
C. What are one’s responsibilities with regard to political activity?
D. What are one’s responsibilities with respect to laws?
E. How should citizens meet certain difficult civic responsibilities?